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New Testament Era
Chronology of Events  :   Fr.Johnson Punchakonam
 
7:Announcement of Birth of John(Jeruselem Temple)
 
7/6:Announcement of Birth of Jesus to the vergin Mary (Nazareth)
 
c.5:Song of Elizebeth to the vergin Mary (Hill Country of Judea)
 
5:Birth,Infancy,and purpose for future of John the Baptist (Judea)Announcement of Jesus' Birth to Joseph
 
 
BC 4/5:**Birth of LORD JESUS CHRIST **(Bethelehem)
 
4/5:Proclamation by the Angels,Thevisit of Homage by Shepherds,Jesus' circumcision
 
4:First Temple visit with acknowledgments by Semeon and Anna
 
4:Visit of the wise men
 
4:Jesus'parents take Him to Egypt and Massacre of innocents
 
2:Death of Herod and Joseph and Mary returned to Isreal
 
AD
 
7-8:Jesus 12 years old visit the Temple
 
20-48:Gondophornes ruled over Indo-Parthian Kingdom
 
25-27:John's ministry begins
 
27:Jesus baptized,Jesus tempted,Calls first disciples,The first miracle,first stay in Capernaum
 
27:First cleansing of the Temple,Teaches Nicodemus,Co-ministry with John
 
28:Goes to Jeruselem for Passover,Famous Parables
 
29:5000 fed,Feast of Tabernacles
 
30:Begins last journey to Jeruselem
 
Spring 30: Sunday:triumphal entry
 
Monday:Fig Tree cursed and Temple Cleansed(Bethany to Jeruselem)
 
Tuesday:Jesus tells date of crucifixion
 
Wednesday:Preperation for the passover
 
Thursday pm:Passover Feast,Institution of the Lord's Supper
 
Thursday night:The grief of Gethsemane,Betrayal,Arrest
 
Friday:Trial,Suside of Judas,Led to Golgotha, 6 events of first 3 hours on cross,Burial of Jesus,Tomb sealed
 
Saturday:Women watch
 
Sunday:Women visit the Tomb,Jesus Appearance to Mary magdalene
 
Sunday afternon:Jesus Appearance to Two Desciples
 
33:St.Thomas sent Thaddeus to King Agbar of Edessa
 
33:Church established in Edessa
 
35:Stephanos martyred
 
40:Apostle Thomas in the service of King Gondaphares in Takshasila
 
41:St.Peeter at Antioch
 
44:Yacob martyred
 
46-48:St Pauls first missionary journey
 
49:Book of Galatians was written
 
49:Book of James was written
 
50:Synod of Jeruselem
 
50-52:St Pauls second missionary journey
 
51:Book of I&II Thessalonians was written
 
52:Nov 21 St. Thomas, the apostle, landed at Cranganore (Kodungalloor, in the present Thrissur District)
 
52-72 The Apostle builds 7 churches: Palayoor, Kodungaloor, Parur, Kokamangalam, Niranam, Nilackal, Kollam
 
52 According to tradition, the Apostle Thomas arrives in India and establishes seven congregations.
 
 
54-68 Nero emperor of Rome
 
56 Paul writes 1 Corin
 
57 Paul writes Romans
 
57 Paul writes 2 Corin
 
57 Paul's last visit to Jerusalem [Acts21]
 
58 Paul arrested, imprisoned in Caesarea [Acts25:4]
 
59 Nero kills his mother, Agrippina
 
60 Paul imprisoned in Rome (Acts 28,16)
 
61-63? Paul? writes Ephesians
 
61-63 Paul writes Philemon
 
61-63 Paul writes Colossians
 
61-63? Paul? writes 1,2 Timothy, Titus, known as "pastoral epistles" 
 
62? James written by leader of Jerusalem community? (Gal 2,9?), "catholic"
 
epistle
 
62 Paul martyred for treason in Rome
 
62 {Being therefore this kind of person [i.e., a heartless Sadducee], Ananus, 
 
thinking that he had a favorable opportunity because Festus had died and 
 
Albinus was still on his way, called a meeting [literally, "sanhedrin"] of 
 
judges and brought into it the brother of Jesus-who-is-called-Messiah, 
 
James by name, and some others. He made the accusation that they had 
 
transgressed the law, and he handed them over to be stoned.} 
 
[JA20.9.1,Marginal Jew,p.57]
 
62 Nero kills his wife Octavia and marries Poppaea Sabina
 
64 Great fire of Rome, started by Nero and blamed on Christians, {Therefore to squelch the rumor , Nero created scapegoats and subjected to the most refined tortures those whom the common people called "Christians," [a group] hated for their abominable crimes. Their name comes from Christ, who, during the reign of Tiberius, had been executed by the procurator Pontius Pilate. Suppressed for the moment, the deadly superstition broke out again, not only in Judea, the land which originated this evil, but also in the city of Rome, where all sorts of horrendous and shameful practices from every part of the world converge and are fervently cultivated.} [Tacitus Annals 15.44;Marginal Jew;Meier;p.89-90]
 
64-95? 1 Peter written in Rome, by Peter the apostle?, "catholic" epistle
 
 
 
65-125 Period in which 4 Gospels, Acts, Revelations, and remaining epistles written 
 
- Peter martyred before 1st Holy Gospel is written, 7 Popes before last 
 
epistle is completed
 
 
 
65? Q written, (German:Quelle, meaning "source") a hypothetical Greek text used 
 
in writing of Matthew and Luke
 
65-150 Didache: Instructions of the Apostles written
 
65-150 Dialogue of the Savior, Gospel of Peter 
 
65-150 Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 1224 fragments: pub. 1914
 
65-150 Gospel of Thomas written, based on Q?, pub. 1959, Greek originals: Papyrus 
 
Ox. 1,654-5
 
65-175 Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 840 fragments: pub. 1908
 
65-175 Papyrus Egerton 2 (Unknown Gospel) fragments: pub. 1935/87, in Greek 
 
from Palestine, one of the oldest extant Christian texts (~175)
 
65-250 Papyrus Fayum (P. Vindob. G. 2325) fragments: pub. 1887
 
65-350 "Jewish-Christian Gospels": 7 fragments of Gospel of the Ebionites and 7 
 
fragments of Gospel of the Hebrews in Greek; 36 fragments of Gospel of the 
 
Nazarenes in Aramaic; [Ref: NT Apocrypha, W. Schneemelcher, vol. 1]
 
66-70 Roman-Jewish War: final destruction of Second Temple (Herod's Temple)
 
67 Peter martyred, crucified upside down in Rome
 
67-78 Pope Linus, 2nd Pope, succeeds Peter (Linus mentioned in 2 Tm 4,21)
 
67 General Vespasian of Rome conquers Galilee
 
68 Nero commits suicide, resurrects as "Nero redivivus", Rev's 666? (see 81)
 
68 Galba emperor of Rome (6/68-1/69)
 
68 Qumran (Essenes?) community destroyed by Rome, site of Dead Sea Scrolls 
 
found in 1949 
 
69 Otho emperor of Rome (1/69-4/69)
 
69 Vitellius emperor of Rome (6/69-12/69)
 
69 Flavian Dynasty of Rome (Vespian, Titus, Domitian)
 
69-79 Vespian emperor of Rome, quells unrest in Rome and Jerusalem
 
70 Collapse of Jewish self-government in Judea and destruction of the Temple in 
 
Jerusalem
 
70 Gospel according to Mark written in Rome, by Peter's interpreter? (1 Peter 
 
5,13), original ending apparently lost, endings added c 400
 
70? "Signs Gospel" written, hypothetical Greek text used in Gospel of John to 
 
prove Jesus is the Messiah
 
72:Jul. 3 Martyrdom of St. Thomas in the vicinity of Mylapore, Madras
 
70-640 Sanhedrin (High Court) period of Judaism, rise of house of Hillel
 
75-90 Gospel according to Luke written, based on Mark and Q
 
75-90 Acts of the Apostles written, same author as Gospel according to Luke
 
79-81 Titus emperor of Rome, eldest son of Vespasian
 
79-91 Pope Anacletus, 3rd Pope, known as "blameless" (as in Titus 1,7?)
 
79 Mt Vesuvius, volcano overlooking Naples Bay, erupts, engulfs Pompeii
 
80-85 Gospel according to Matthew written, based on Mark and Q, most popular in 
 
early Church
 
81-96 Domitian emperor of Rome, son of Vespasian, "Nero redivivus?" (see 68)
 
81-96 Revelations written, by John (son of Zebedee) and/or a disciple of his
 
90-100 1 John written, by author(s) of 4th gospel, "catholic" epistle
 
90-100 2,3 John written, by "elder", disciple of John (son of Zebedee)?, "catholic" 
 
epistle
 
90-100 Gospel according to John written, by John (son of Zebedee) and others, only 
 
eyewitness to Jesus?, disciple Jesus loved?, Gnostic?
 
90? Josephus claims exactly 22 Jewish (OT) books: 5 Law, 13 History, 4 Hymns
 
91-101 Pope Clement I, 4th Pope, (mentioned in Phil 4,3), wrote letter to Corinth in 
 
95 called "1 Clement"
 
94 "Jewish Antiquities", by Josephus in Aramaic, trans. to Grk., Testimonium 
 
Flavianum: {At this time there appeared Jesus, a wise man. For he was a 
 
doer of startling deeds, a teacher of people who receive the truth with 
 
pleasure. And he gained a following both among many Jews and among many 
 
of Greek origin. And when Pilate, because of an accusation made by the 
 
leading men among us, condemned him to the cross, those who had loved him 
 
previously did not cease to do so. And up until this very day the tribe of 
 
Christians (named after him) has not died out.} [JA18.3.3 Meier redaction, 
 
Marginal Jew, p.61]
 
96? Hebrews written, by ?
 
96-98 Nerva emperor of Rome
 
98-116 Trajan emperor of Rome, Roman empire reaches maximum size
 
100? Odes of Solomon, written in Greek or Syriac, ref by John? (Apocrypha)
 
100? Epistle of Barnabas, Christian exegesis of LXX (AF = Apostolic Fathers)
 
100? 2 Clement, an old sermon but not by Clement (AF = Apostolic Fathers)
 
100? 2 Esdras (Vg:4 Esdras), Hebrew?, claims 24 OT books (Vulgate & Peshitta)
 
100? Apocalypse of Baruch (2 Baruch:Syriac, 3 Baruch:Greek) (Peshitta)
 
100? Paralipomena of Jeremiah (4 Baruch), written in Hebrew (Ethiopic Bible)
 
100? Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, Aramaic and Hebrew fragments found 
 
at Qumran Caves 1,4 (Armenian Bible)
 
100? Jude written, probably by doubting relative of Jesus (Mark 6,3), rejected by 
 
some early Christians due to its reference to apocryphal Book of Enoch 
 
(v14), "catholic" epistle
 
100-125? 2 Peter written, by ?, not accepted into canon until early 400s, drew upon 
 
Epistle of Jude, "catholic" epistle
 
100-150 Secret Book (Apocryphon) of James, Gospel of Mary Magdalene, Infancy 
 
Gospels of Thomas and James, Secret Gospel (of Mark) (Complete Gospels)
 
100:New Testament canon
 
72-1653:Rule of Arch Deacons in Malankara
 
101-109 Pope Evaristus, 5th Pope
 
109-116 Pope Alexander, 6th Pope
 
110? Letter of Polycarp to the Philippians, written by Polycarp (160) (AF)
 
110? "Letters of Ignatius", bishop of Antioch, martyred in Rome, his letters were 
 
subjected to heavy Christian forgery esp. 4th cent. (Apostolic Fathers)
 
116-125 Pope Sixtus I, 7th Pope
 
117-138 Hadrian emperor of Rome, builds wall across Britain
 
 
 
125-350 Period of Christianity during which the first Bible was assembled - Christians 
 
are fiercely persecuted and then finally tolerated by the Roman Empire, Great 
 
Plague in Rome
 
 
 
125-136 Pope Telesphorus, 8th Pope, martyred
 
125? Papyrus 52: oldest extant NT fragment, p.1935, parts of Jn18:31-33,37-38
 
125? Shepherd of Hermas, written in Rome (AF = Apostolic Fathers)
 
130-200 "Christian Apologists" writings against Roman Paganism by: Justin Martyr 
 
(165), Athenagoras (180?), Aristides (145?), Theophilus of Antioch (185?), 
 
Tatian (170), Quadratus (130?), Melito of Sardis (180?), Apollinaris of 
 
Hierapolis (180?), also Epistle to Diognetus in Apostolic Fathers
 
130? "Gospel of Basilides", a 24 book commentary?, lost
 
130? Papias, bishop of Hierapolis in Asia Minor, wrote: "Expositions of the Sayings 
 
of the Lord", lost, widely quoted, see Eusebius (340) (AF)
 
130? Aquila of Pontus, Roman convert to Christianity then to Judaism, student of 
 
Rabban Gamaliel, compiled literal Greek OT translation in Jabneh (Jamnia)
 
132-135 Bar Kokhba Revolt: final Jewish revolt, Judea and Jerusalem erased from 
 
maps, all of southern Syria renamed Palestine (coined by Herodotus)
 
138-161 Antoninus Pius emperor of Rome
 
138-142 Pope Hyginus, 9th Pope
 
140 Letters of Marcion, produces his own canon without OT and using only a 
 
heavily edited Luke + 10 Pauline Epistles, cites "Western" Gospel text-type
 
140? Apocalypse of Peter, written in Greek [NT Apocrypha,Schneemelcher,v.2]
 
142-155 Pope Pius I, 10th Pope
 
150? Gospel of the Egyptians, Coptic translation of orig. Greek (Nag Hammadi)
 
150? "Western Revisor" adds/subtracts from original Acts to produce "Western" 
 
version which is 10% larger and found in Papyrus P29,38,48 and Codex 
 
Bezae (D)
 
150? Papyrus Chester Beatty 6: R963, Greek Num 5:12-36:13, Deut 1:20-34:12
 
154-222:Bardesan of Edesa wrote Act of Thomas
 
165:Relics of St.Thomas translated to Edesa
 
155-166 Pope Anicetus, 11th Pope
 
160? Polycarp, bishop of Smyrna, martyred at age 86: "Let. to Philip." (110)
 
160? Martyrdom of Polycarp, in Greek (Apostolic Fathers, ISBN:0-8010-5676-4)
 
161-180 Marcus Aurelius emperor of Rome
 
164-180 Great Plague in Roman Empire
 
166-174 Pope Soter, 12th Pope, moved Easter from Nisan 14 to following Sunday
 
170 Letters of Irenaeus, bishop of Lyons, cites "Western" Gospel text-type
 
170 Christian council on Montanist sect in Asia Minor
 
170 Letters of Dionysius, bishop of Corinth, claims Christians were changing and 
 
faking his own letters just as [he knew] they had changed the Gospels
 
170 Tatian produces "Diatessaron" (Harmony) by blending 4 "Western" text-type 
 
Gospels into 1
 
170? Symmachus, an Ebionite, writes an entirely new Greek OT translation
 
174-189 Pope Eleutherius, 13th Pope
 
175? Acts of Paul (inc. 3 Cor.), in Greek [NT Apocrypha,Schneemelcher,v.2]
 
180-192 Commodus emperor of Rome
 
c. 189 Pantaenus, a missionary from Alexandria, arrives in India.
 
 
53-62 Paul writes Phil
 
185-350 Canon Muratorian, 1st extant for NT?, written in Rome by Hippolytus?, 
 
excludes Hebrews, James, 1-2 Peter, 3 John; includes Wisdom of Solomon, 
 
Apocalypse of Peter
 
189-198 Pope Victor I, 1st Latin Pope, 14th Pope, excommunicated Eastern churches 
 
that continued to observe Easter on Nisan 14 "Quartodeciman", (see 166, 
 
190)
 
190 Christian council to determine "official" date of Easter
 
190:Pantaenus, (probably the founder of the famous Catechetical School of Alexandria) visited Malankara and the Nazranies
 
193-211 Septimius Severus emperor of Rome
 
197 Writings of Apollonius, uses the term "catholic" in reference to 1 John
 
198-217 Pope Zephyrinus, 15th Pope
 
200 Bishop of Antioch notes Gospel of Peter (see 65?) being used in Cilicia
 
c. 200 The Syriac Chronicle of Edessa describes a "church of the Christians" in India.
 
200? Papyrus 66: 2nd Bodmer, John, 1956, "Alexandrian/Western" text-types: Jn 1:1-6:11,35-7:52;8:12-14:26,29-30;15:2-26;16:2-4,6-7,10-20:20,22-23,25-21:9
 
200? Papyrus 75: Bodmer 14-15, Luke & John, earliest extant Luke, ~Vaticanus; 
 
Lk3:18-22,33-4:2,34-5:10,37-6:4,10-7:32,35-39,41-43,46-9:2,4-
 
17:15,19-18:18; 22:4-24:53; Jn1:1-7:52;8:12-11:45,48-57;12:3-
 
13:1,8-9;14:8-30;15:7-8
 
200? Papyrus 46: 2nd Chester Beatty, "Alexandrian" text-type: Rm5:17-6:3,5-
 
14;8:15-25,27-35,37-9:32;10:1-11:22,24-33,35-15:9,11-16:27;Hb1:1-
 
9:16,18-10:20,22-30,32-13:25;1Cr1:1-9:2,4-14:14,16-15:15,17-
 
16:22;2Cr1:1-11:10,12-21,23-13:13;Ep1:1-2:7,10-5:6,8-6:6,8,20-
 
24;Gl1:1-8,10-2:9,12-21;3:2-29;4:2-18,20-5:17,20-6:8,10-
 
18;Ph1:1,5-15,17-28,30-2:12,14-27,29-3:8,10-21;4:2-12,14-
 
23;Cl1:1-2,5-13,16-24,27-2:19,23-3:11,13-24;4:3-12,16-
 
18;1Th1:1,9-2:3;5:5-9,23-28
 
200? Papyrus 32: J. Rylands Library: Titus 1:11-15;2:3-8
 
200? Papyrus 64 (+67): Mt3:9,15;5:20-22,25-28;26:7-8,10,14-15,22-23,31-
 
33
 
200? Old Syriac (Aramaic) Gospels, Syr(s) & Syr(c), of "Western" text-type
 
200? Latin Bible translations begun in Carthage?, originals no longer extant
 
200? Sahidic Coptic cop(sa) Bible translations written in Alexendria
 
212-217 Geta then Caracalla emperors of Rome
 
216-428:Perumal rule of in Kerala
 
217-236 Anti-Pope Hippolytus, bishop of Rome, "Logos" sect, 1st Anti-Pope 
 
(illegitimate claimants of or pretenders to the papal throne)
 
217-222 Pope Callistus I, 16th Pope
 
218-222 Heliogabalus emperor of Rome
 
220 Goths invade Asia Minor and Balkans
 
220? Clement of Alexandria, b.150?, bishop, cites "Alexandrian" NT text-type & 
 
Secret Gospel of Mark & Gospel of the Egyptians; wrote: "Exhortations to the 
 
Greeks";"Rich Man's Salutation";"To the Newly Baptized"; (Loeb Classics)
 
222-230 Pope Urban I, 17th Pope
 
222-235 Alexandar Severus emperor of Rome
 
223? Tertullian, wr: "de Spectaculis" (Latin): v30.6 cites rumor Jesus son of 
 
prostitute, coined "New Testament", cites "Western" Gospel text-type (Loeb)
 
225? Papyrus 45: 1st Chester Beatty, Gospels (Caesarean), Acts (Alexandrian): 
 
Mt20:24-32;21:13-19;25:41-26:39; Mk4:36-40;5:15-26,38-6:3,16-
 
25,36-50;7:3-15 ,25-8:1,10-26,34-9:9,18-31;11:27-12:1,5-8,13-
 
19,24-28; Lk6:31-41,45-7:7;9:26 -41,45-10:1,6-22,26-11:1,6-25,28-
 
46,50-12:12,18-37,42-13:1,6-24,29-14:10,17-33; Jn10:7-25,30-
 
11:10,18-36,42-57; Ac4:27-36;5:10-21,30-39;6:7-7:2,10-21,32-
 
41,52-8:1,14-25,34-9:6,16-27,35-10:2,10-23,31-41;11:2-14,24-
 
12:5,13-22;13:6-16,25-36,46-14:3,15-23;15:2-7,19-27,38-16:4,15-
 
21,32-40;17:9-17
 
225? Papyrus 967: Chester Beatty 9, Greek Ezekiel 11:25-end, ~Codex Vaticanus
 
230-236 Pope Pontian, 18th Pope
 
230-250 Christian council of Rome, Demetrius bishop of Alex. condemns Origen who in 
 
248 cited a rumor recorded by Celsus that "Jesus fabricated the account of 
 
his birth from a virgin. In reality, Jesus' mother was driven out by the 
 
carpenter husband to whom she was betrothed because she had committed 
 
adultery with a [Roman] soldier named Panthera [thus the ben Pantere of 
 
Jewish sources]. Left poor and homeless, she gave birth to Jesus in secret. 
 
Jesus later spent time in Egypt, where he hired himself out as a laborer, 
 
learned magic, and so came to claim the title of God." [CC1.28-32, Marginal 
 
Jew, Meier, p. 223]
 
231:Jerusalem Synod sanctioned Catholicate of Persia
 
232: Sassanians become a major power.
 
236-238 Maximus emperor of Rome, ends Christian schism in Rome by deporting Pope 
 
Pontian and anti-Pope Hippolytus to Sardinia where they soon die
 
236-237 Pope Anterus, 19th Pope
 
237-250 Pope Fabian, 20th Pope
 
238-244 Gordian I, II, Balbinus, Pupienus, Gordian III emperors of Rome
 
240-250 Christian council of Carthage
 
244-249 Philip the Arabian emperor of Rome
 
249-251 Decius emperor of Rome
 
249 Rome celebrates 1000th anniversary
 
250 Rome steps up persecution of Christians, martyrs revered as saints
 
250 Letters of Methodius, Pistis Sophia, Porphyry Tyrius; church fathers
 
250? Mandeans (followers of John the Baptist) begin compilation of "Ginza"
 
250? Papyrus 72: Bodmer 5-11+, pub. 1959, "Alexandrian" text-type: Nativity of 
 
Mary; 3Cor; Odes of Solomon 11; Jude 1-25; Melito's Homily on Passover; 
 
Hymn fragment; Apology of Phileas; Ps33,34; 1Pt1:1-5:14; 2Pt1:1-3:18;
 
250? Papyrus Chester Beatty: #5:R962: Gn8:13-9:2,24:13-46:33,Enoch91-105; 
 
#7: I8:18-19:13,38:14-45:5,54:1=60:22; #8: Jr4:30-5:24; #10: Dn1-
 
12:13(+Add),Bel4-39,Sus5-end,Esther1:1a-8:6(+Add)
 
251-253 Gallus emperor of Rome
 
251-253 Pope Cornelius, 21st Pope
 
251-258 Anti-Pope Novatian, decreed no forgiveness for sins after baptism
 
253-260 Valerian emperor of Rome, executes all Bishops, Priests, and Deacons
 
253-254 Pope Lucius I, 22nd Pope
 
254 Letters of Origen, Jesus and God one substance, adopted at Council of Nicaea 
 
in 325, compiled "Hexapla": 6 versions of LXX side by side: Hebrew, Hebrew 
 
transliterated in Greek, Aquila's Greek trans., Symmachus' Greek trans., 
 
Origen's revised LXX Greek trans., Theodotion's revised LXX; also 
 
Quinta/Sexta/Septima trans., Tetragrammaton in square Hebrew script; 
 
cites "Alexandrian" & "Caesarean" NT text-types; Eusebius claimed Origen 
 
castrated himself for Christ due to Mt19:12 [EH6.8.1-3]
 
254-257 Pope Steven I, 23rd Pope, major schism over rebaptizing heretics and 
 
apostates
 
257-258 Pope Sixtus II, 24th Pope, martyred
 
257 Visigoths and Ostrogoths invade Black Sea area, Franks invade Spain
 
258 Letters of Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage, cites "Western" NT text-type, claims 
 
Christians are freely forging his letters to discredit him
 
260-268 Gallienus emperor of Rome, reverses Valerian, restores Roman Church
 
260-268 Pope Dionysius, 25th Pope, rebuilds Roman Church after Valerian's massacre
 
264-268 Christian council on Paul of Samosata, Bishop of Antioch, founder of 
 
Adoptionism (Jesus was human until Holy Spirit descended at his baptism)
 
264? Letters of Dionysius, bishop of Alexandria, b.190?
 
267:Catholicos Pappa at Seleucia
 
268 Goths sack Athens, Sparta, Corinth
 
268-270 Claudius II emperor of Rome
 
269-274 Pope Felix I, 26th Pope
 
270-275 Aurelian emperor of Rome
 
275-283 Pope Eutychian, 27th Pope, decreed that only beans and grapes be blessed at 
 
Mass
 
275? Papyrus 47: 3rd Chester Beatty, ~Sinaiticus, Rv9:10-11:3,5-16:15,17-
 
17:2
 
276-282 Marcus Aurelius Probus emperor of Rome
 
276 Mani, b.215, crucified, founder of Manichaean Christian sect in Persia
 
283-296 Pope Gaius, 28th Pope
 
284-305 Diocletian emperor of Rome, notorius persecuter of Christians
 
285 Roman empire partitioned into Western and Eastern empires
 
290-345 St Pachomius establishes 1st monastery in Egypt
 
295:Metropolitan Dawood of the Persian Church visits
 
296-304 Pope Marcellinus, 29th Pope, apostate, offered pagan sacrifices for 
 
Diocletian
 
300:Metropolitan Daud visited Malankara
 
300? Bohairic Coptic cop(bo) Bible translations written in Alexandria
 
300? Hesychius of Alex., martyr, translates Hebrew OT to Greek, lost [Jerome]
 
300? Papyrus Berlin Codex of Greek Genesis; Papyrus Bodmer 24 of Greek Psalms; 
 
Codex Freer of Greek Minor Prophets; all published in 1927
 
300? other 3rd century NT witnesses: P1:Mt1:1-9,12,14-20 P4:Lk1:58-59,62-
 
2:1, 6-7;3:8-4:2,29-32,34-35;5:3-8,30-6:16 P5:Jn1:23-31,33-
 
40;16:14-30;20:11-17, 19-20,22-25 P9:1Jn4:11-12,14-17 P12:Hb1:1 
 
P15:1Cr7:18-8:4 P20:Jm2:19-3:9 P22:Jn15:25-16:2,21-32 
 
P23:Jm1:10-12,15-18 P27:Rm8:12-22,24-27,33-9:3,5-9 P28:Jn6:8-
 
12,17-22 P29:Ac26:7-8,20 P30:1Th4:12-13,16-17;5:3,8-10,12-18,25-
 
28;2Th1:1-2 P38:Ac18:27-19:6,12-16 P39:Jn8:14-22 P40:Rm1:24-
 
27,31-2:3;3:21-4:8;6:4-5:16;9:16-17:27 P48:Ac23:11-17,23-29 
 
P49:Ep4:16-29,31-5:13 P53:Mt26:29-40;Ac9:33-10:1 P65:1Th1:3-
 
2:1,6-13 P69:Lk22:41,45-48,58-61 P70:Mt2:13-16,22-3:1;11:26-
 
27;12:4-5;24:3-6,12-15 P80:Jn3:34 P87:Pm13-15,24-25 
 
#0171:Mt10:17-23,25-32;Lk22:44-56,61-64 #0189:Ac5:3-21 
 
#0220:Rm4:23-5:3,8-13 #0212(Diatessaron):Mt27:56-57;Mk15:40-
 
42;Lk23:49-51,54;Jn19:38
 
303-311 Last persecution of Christians in Rome
 
304 Letters of Victor, bishop of Pettau
 
306-337 Emperor Constantine the Great, convert to Christianity
 
306-312 Maxentius emperor of Western Roman Empire
 
306-308 Pope Marcellus I, 30th Pope, tried removing prior Pope Marcellinus from 
 
official records for apostasy, exiled from Rome by Maxentius for disturbing 
 
the peace
 
310 Pope Eusebius, 31st Pope, deported to Sicily with anti-Pope Heraclius by 
 
Maxentius
 
311-314 Pope Miltiades, 32nd Pope, Constantine gives Fausta's palace as papal 
 
residence
 
312 Lucian, founded Exegetical School of Antioch, martyred
 
312 Constantine defeats Maxentius at Milvian Bridge, reunites Roman Empire
 
313 Edict of Milan, Constantine establishes toleration of Christianity
 
313 Miltiades excommunicates Donatus for requiring rebaptism of apostates
 
314-335 Pope Silvester I, 33rd Pope
 
314 Council of Arles, called by Constantine against Donatist (Donatus) schism
 
317 Letters of Lactantius, early Christian church father
 
321 Constantine decrees Sunday as offical Roman-Christian day of rest
 
325 Council of Nicaea, called by Constantine against Arianism (336), called 1st 
 
great Christian council by Jerome, 1st ecumenical, 318 bishops attend, 
 
Nicaean Creed
 
325:Archbishop John, of Persia and Great India, at the first Ecumenical Council of Nicea
 
325? Fayyumic Coptic cop(mf) translation fragment of John 6:11-15:11
 
330 Old Saint Peter's Basilica dedicated by Constantine, located over the 
 
traditional burial site of Saint Peter the Apostle in Rome on Vatican Hill 
 
331 Seat of Roman Empire moved to Constantinople (formally Byzantium)
 
336-337 Pope Mark, 34th Pope
 
336 Arius, Greek theologian - Arianism (Jesus was a created being)
 
337-350 Roman empire splits again, Constans emperor of West until 350
 
337-361 Roman empire splits again, Constantius emperor of East until 361
 
337-352 Pope Julius I, 35th Pope
 
338 Jewish calendar modified with different year lengths to correct to Solar
 
340-360 By the Thazhekad Sasanam the Nazranies granted special rights and privileges.
 
340? Eusebius of Caesarea (260-340), theologian & church historian, cites 
 
"Caesarean" NT text-type, wrote: "Ecclesiastical History" (EH); Loeb 
 
Classics: 2 volumes {Papias, bishop of Hierapolis (130?), claims that John 
 
the Elder, a disciple of Jesus, told him that Mark "was the interpreter of 
 
Peter and wrote down carefully what he remembered of what had been said
 
or done by the Lord, but not in the right order." Also claims that "Matthew 
 
composed the sayings in Hebrew [more likely Aramaic] and each one 
 
translated them as he could."} [Ref: EH3.39.15, Unauthorized Version, Fox, 
 
p.126-127] Eusebius' NT Canon: Recognized Books: 4 Holy Gospels, Acts, 14 
 
Pauline Epistles, 1Jn, 1Pt; Disputed Books: Rev, James, Jude, 2Pt, 2-3Jn, 
 
Acts of Paul, Hermas, Apocalypse of Peter, Barnabas, Didache, Gospel of the 
 
Hebrews; Rejected Books: Gospels of Peter, Thomas, Matthias, Acts of 
 
Andrew, John ... [EH3.25], used the term "catholic" to refer to all seven 
 
epistles - James; 1,2,3 John; 1,2 Peter; Jude
 
345 During the Great Persecution in Persia, Thomas a Kana leads 400 Christian refugees to the Malabar coast.
 
 
345:Imigration of Mar Joseph,Cana Thi-oma and others
 
345:A group of 72 syrian settlers under the leadership of Knanya Thoman arrives in Kodungalloor. Kocharakon Perumal gave brass- copper plaques (Cana Thoma Chepped )to knanya Thoman and his group on which were inscribed the list of the gifts given
 
350-400 Period of time between the 1st Christian Bible and the 1st Western Christian 
 
Bible, during which the books contained in Bibles varied
 
 
 
350 Letters of Adamantius, Firmicus Maternus; early Christian church fathers
 
350? Codex Sinaiticus (S or ): earliest Christian Bible, (LXX - 2-
 
3Maccabees - Psalms of Solomon - Ps151 + 27NT + Barnabas + Hermas), 
 
missing Hermas31.7-end; of "Alexandrian" text-type: most accurate text-
 
type
 
350? Codex Vaticanus (B): earliest Christian Bible (LXX - 1-4Maccabees - Psalms 
 
of Solomon - Ps151 + 27NT), missing Gn1-46:28, Ps105:27-137:6, 1Tm-
 
Phm, Heb9:14-end; of "Alexandrian" text-type: most accurate text-type
 
350? Papyrus Antinoopolis of Book of Proverbs in Greek, published in 1950
 
350? Papyrus Chester Beatty: #4:R961: Greek Gn9:1-44:22; #11: Greek 
 
Sir36:28- 37:22,46:6-47:2; #12: Greek Enoch93:12-13,94:7-8,97:6-
 
104:13,106:1-107:3
 
350? Papyrus Bodmer 45-46: Greek Susanna, Daniel 1:1-20 (Theodotion's LXX)
 
350? Canon Cheltenham: 24NT books (excludes James, Jude, Hebrews)
 
350? Akhmimic cop(ac) & Sub-Akhmimic cop(ac2) Coptic translations of John
 
350? Ulfilas, apostle to the Goths (Germans), translates Greek NT to Gothic
 
352-366 Pope Liberius, 36th Pope
 
354:Theophilus of Maldive Islands visited Malankara
 
354-430 St. Augustine, Latin Bishop considered the founder of formalized Christian 
 
theology, church father
 
355-365 Anti-Pope Felix II, Arianism (336), supported by Constantius II
 
360 Huns invade Europe, scrolls begin to be replaced by books (Codex)
 
361-363 Julian the Apostate emperor of East, attempts to revive Paganism
 
363 Council of Laodicea names 26 NT books (excludes Revelations)
 
363 Letters of Marius Victorinus, Acacius of Caesarea; early church fathers
 
364 Council of Laodicea decrees death for Christians who keep 7th day Sabbath
 
366-384 Pope Damasus I, 37th Pope, hired thugs to massacre rival Ursinians 
 
(Liberians)
 
366-367 Anti-Pope Ursinus, leader of supporters of former Pope Liberius
 
367 Athanasias, bishop of Alexandria, first citing of modern 27 NT canon
 
367 Letters of Hilary of Poitiers, Lucifer of Calaris; early church fathers
 
367 Athanasius, d.373, bishop of Alexandria, first cite of modern 27NT canon
 
370 Epiphanius, bishop of Salamis, Cyprus; cites 27NT + Wisdom of Solomon
 
370 Doctrine of Addai at Edessa proclaims 17 book NT canon using Diatessaron 
 
(instead of the 4 Gospels) + Acts + 15 Pauline Epistles (inc. 3 Corinthians)
 
373 Letters of Ephraem Syrus, cites "Western" Acts text-type
 
378 Letters of Titus of Bostra, Ambrosiaster, Priscillian; church fathers
 
379-395 Theodosius the Great, last emperor of the united empire
 
380 Feb 27, Christianity declared official state religion by Theodosius
 
381 Council of Theodosius at Constantinople, 2nd ecumenical, Jesus had true 
 
human soul
 
382-384 Pope Damasus I has Jerome revise and unify Latin Bibles
 
383 Roman legions begin to evacuate Britain
 
384 Jerome presents Pope Damasus I with new Latin Gospels, originals lost
 
384-399 Pope Siricius, 38th Pope, criticized Jerome
 
390 Apollinaris of Laodicea, Jesus had human body but divine spirit
 
390 Letters of Tyconius, Gregory of Nyssa, Didymus of Alex.; church fathers
 
391? Ammianus Marcellinus, b.330, Christian historian, wrote: "Res gestae"
 
393,397 Augustine's Councils, cites exactly 27 NT books (see 354)
 
395 Theodosius prohibits practice of Pagan rituals including Olympic Games
 
395 Ausonius, b.310?, Christian governor of Gaul; Loeb Classics 2v (Latin)
 
396 Alaric, king of the Visigoths, plunders Athens
 
397 Ambrose, b.333?, bishop & governor of Milan, wrote: "de Fide" ...
 
399-401 Pope Anastasius I, 39th Pope
 
 
 
400-484 Era between 1st Western Christian Bible and the Great Schism - Christian 
 
doctrine is formed, Roman empire ends
 
 
 
400:North Pudukkad church founded
 
400? Vulgate Bible, by Jerome?, (340?-420) originals lost, Vulgate Latin text 
 
becomes standard Western Christian Bible
 
400? Jerome cites "expanded" ending in Mark after Mark 16,14
 
400? Jerome adds Pericope of the Adultress (John 7,53-8,11)
 
400? Codex Vercellensis it(a): Latin Gospels, of "European" text-type
 
400? Peshitta Bible, Syriac (Aramaic) Vulgate, Syr(p), OT + 22 NT, excludes: 
 
2Pt, 2-3Jn, Jude, Rev; Peshitta becomes standard Syrian Christian Bible
 
400? Codex Bobiensis it(k): ~half of Mt/Mk in Latin, "African" (Carthage) text-
 
type, has "shorter" ending of Mark after Mk16:8
 
401-417 Pope Innocent I, 40th Pope, decreed Roman custom the norm for Christianity
 
401 Visigoths invade Italy
 
403 Letters of Epiphanius of Constantia, John Chrysostom; church fathers
 
410:Council of Seleucia
 
410 Visigoths sack Rome under king Alaric
 
414 Letters of Nicetas of Remesiana, Orosius; early Christian church fathers
 
415 Bishop Cyril of Alex. (444) expels Jews, kills Hypatia with oyster shells
 
416 Visigoths take Spain
 
417-418 Pope Zosimus, 41st Pope
 
418-422 Pope Boniface I, 42nd Pope
 
418-419 Anti-Pope Eulalius
 
418 Franks take Gaul
 
420 St. Jerome, (S.E. Hieronymus), b.340?, Latin scholar; (Loeb Classics)
 
422-432 Pope Celestine I, 43rd Pope
 
423 Theodoret, bishop of Cyrrhus, notes Tatian's Harmony (170) in heavy use
 
424:Council of Markabta
 
431 Council of Ephesus, 3rd ecumenical, decreed Mary the Mother of God
 
429 Picts and Scots expelled from southern England by Anglo-Saxon-Jutes
 
430 St. Augustine, b.354, origin of "Original Sin," church father & philosopher, 
 
wrote: "The City of God", "Confessions"; Loeb Classics 10 v. (Latin)
 
430 Letters of Marcus Eremita, Nilus of Ancyra; Christian church fathers
 
431 Syrian Christianity splits into East (Nestorian-disagreed with Council of
 
Ephesus) and West (Jacobites)
 
432 St Patrick begins mission in Ireland
 
432-440 Pope Sixtus III, 44th Pope
 
433-453 Attila the Hun, "Scourge of the Gods"
 
440-461 Pope Leo I, 45th Pope
 
444 Letters of Cyril of Alexandria, Arnobius the Younger; church fathers
 
450 Mark's Resurrection of Jesus added to Bible (Mark 16, 9-20)
 
450? Codex Alexandrinus (A): (LXX - 1-2Maccabees + 14_Church_Odes + 27NT + 
 
1-2Clement), missing 1K12:17-14:9, Ps49:20-79:11, Psalms of Solomon, 
 
Mt1-25:6, Jn6:50-8:52, 2Cr4:13-12:6, 1Clement57.7-63.4, 
 
2Clement12.5b-end; of "Alexandrian" text-type: most accurate text-type
 
450? Codex Bezae (D): Greek/Latin Gospels + Acts; Codex Washingtonianus (W): 
 
Greek Gospels; both of "Western" text-type: "fondness for paraphrase"
 
450? Codex Ephraemi Syri rescriptus (C): Greek LXX + 27NT, many gaps
 
450? Codex Marchalianus (Q): Greek LXX + Luke + John, many gaps
 
450? Codex Ambrosianus (F): Greek Genesis to Joshua
 
450? Codex Freer: Greek Deuteronomy and Joshua
 
450? Codex Colberto-Sarravianus: Origen's Greek Hexapla LXX of Gen-Judg
 
450? Codex Palatinus it(e): Latin Gospels, "African" (Carthage) text-type
 
450? Codex Veronensis it(b): Latin Gospels, "European/Vulgate" text-type
 
450? Syr(pal), Palestinian Syriac (Aramaic) Gospels, of "Caesarean" text-type
 
450? std. Aramaic Targums, T. Onkelos of Torah, T. Jonathan of Prophets
 
451 Council of Chalcedon, 4th ecumenical, declared Jesus is 2 natures, both 
 
human and divine in one, a compromise solution of Jesus god/man schisms
 
451 Nestorius of Constantinople, Nestorians: Mary was *not* "Mother of God"
 
451 Letters of Hesychius, Quodvultdeus; early Christian church fathers
 
454 Eutyches of Constantinople, Monophysites: Jesus was divine but not human
 
455 Vandals sack Rome
 
456:Persian Church was moving towards adopting Nestorianism as its faith
 
457-474 Pope Leo I, 46th Pope, becomes emperor of remaining (eastern) Roman 
 
empire
 
461-468 Pope Hilarus, 47th Pope
 
463 Letters of Prosper of Aquitaine, early Christian church father
 
466 Letters of Shenute of Atripe, Theodoret of Cyrrhus; early church fathers
 
468-483 Pope Simplicius, 48th Pope
 
474-491 Zeno, eastern Roman emperor
 
476 Official end of western Roman empire, last emperor Romulus Augustulus
 
480:St. Hormis church, Angamaly founded
 
480-547 St. Benedict, founded the Benedictines
 
483-492 Pope Felix III (II), 49th Pope
 
 
 
484-640 Period between Great Schism and the destruction of the Library of Alexendria 
 
- After the end of the Roman Empire, the Catholic Church sees a period of 
 
turmoil and division, Europe's population "halved" by plague, great 
 
earthquakes occur
 
 
 
484-519 Acacian schism, over "Henoticon" divides Eastern (Greek) and Western 
 
(Roman) churches. Photinus, deacon of Thessalonica, was of the Greek 
 
church and held to the Acacian heresy, which denied the divine paternity of 
 
Christ. Photinus persuaded emperor Anastasius I to accept the Acacian 
 
heresy.
 
484 Letters of Vigilius of Thapsus, early Christian church father
 
489 Zeno destroys Nestorian (451) school at Edessa, erects Church of St Simeon
 
491 Armenian Church seceds from East (Byzantium) and West (Rome) churches
 
491-518 Anastasius I eastern Roman emperor
 
492-496 Pope Gelasius I, 50th Pope, "Vicar of Christ" is first used as another title
 
496-498 Pope Anastasius II
 
498 Nestorians (451) settle in Nisibis, Persia
 
498-514 Pope Symmachus
 
514-523 Pope Hormisdas
 
523-526 Pope John I, martyr
 
498:Nestorian Catholicate formed in Persia
 
498-506 Anti-Pope Lawrence, Lawrencian schism
 
500:Enammavu church founded
 
500 Incense introduced in Christian church service, first plans of Vatican
 
500? Codex Sangallensis vg: earliest extant Latin Vulgate, Gospels
 
500? Codex Argenteus (got): earliest nearly complete Gothic (German), Gospels
 
500? Codex Cottonianus: Greek Genesis
 
502 Narsai of Mealletha, Syrian poet, heads Nestorian school in Nisibis(498)
 
503:St. George church, Edappally founded
 
510:Udayamperore (Diamper) church built.
 
518-527 Justin I: emperor of Byzantine (former eastern Roman) empire
 
522:Cosmas Indicopleustes visits South India.
 
552:Alexandrian merchant Cosmas Indicopleustus visited Malankara
 
524 Boethius, b.480?, Roman Christian philosopher, wrote: "Theological 
 
Tractates", "Consolation of Philosophy"; (Loeb Classics) (Latin)
 
525 Dionysius Exiguus sets Christian calendar (a.d.) & Jesus' birth @ 23 Dec 1AD
 
526 Earthquake in Antioch kills 250,000
 
526-530 Pope Felix IV (III)
 
527-565 Justinian the Great, Byzantine emperor
 
527 Letters of Fulgentius, early Christian church father
 
529 Justinian closes 1000yr Athen's School of Philosophy, declared Paganistic
 
530-532 Pope Boniface II
 
530 Anti-Pope Dioscorus
 
532-535 Pope John II
 
533 N. Africa captured by Belisarius from Vandals, becomes Byzantine province
 
534-870 Malta becomes Byzantine province
 
535-536 Pope Agapitus I
 
536-537 Pope Silverius, martyr
 
537-555 Pope Vigilius, involved in death of Pope Silverius, conspired with Justinian 
 
and Theodora, excommunicated by N. African bishops in 550
 
539-562 War between Byzantine empire and Persia
 
542 Plague in Constantinople from Egyptian and Syrian rats, spreads to Europe
 
543 Justinian condemns Origen (254), disastrous earthquakes hit the world
 
541-546 Codex Fuldensis vg(F): Latin Vulgate, 27NT + Epistle to Laodiceans
 
544 Justinian condemns the "3 Chapters" of Theodore of Mopsuestia (d.428) and 
 
other writings of "2-natures" Christology of Council of Chalcedon (451)
 
547 Pope Vigilius issues "Iudicatum" supporting Justinian's anti-"2-natures"
 
547 Plague reaches Britain
 
548 Letters of Apringius Pacensis, early Christian church father
 
550-1453 Medieval Greek of Constantinople (Byzantium) becomes standard Greek
 
550 Byzantine Greek Text, standard Eastern Bible, much smoothing & conflation
 
550 St. David converts Wales to Christianity, crucifix becomes Christian icon
 
550? Codex Claromontanus (Dp): Greek/Latin Pauline Epistles + Canon of ~250AD 
 
lists 27NT+Barnabas+Hermas+Acts_of_Paul+Apocalypse_of_Peter; 
 
"Western" type
 
550? Codex Mediolanensis vg(M): Latin Vulgate Gospels
 
550? Codex Veronensis: Greek & Old Latin Psalms
 
555 2nd Council of Constantinople, 5th ecumenical, called by Justinian
 
559:Yakoub Burdana consecrated Ahoudemme
 
556-561 Pope Pelagius I, selected by Justinian, endorsed "Iudicatum" (547)
 
561-574 Pope John III, authorized by Justinian
 
565-578 Justin II, Byzantine emperor
 
567 Letters of Primasius, Cassiodorus; early Christian church fathers
 
570:Birth of Mohammad, Prophet of Islam in Mecca.
 
572-628 War between Byzantine empire and Persia
 
575-579 Pope Benedict I, authorized by Justin II, 
 
578:Death of Mar Yakoub Burdana
 
578-582 Tiberius II, Byzantine emperor
 
579-590 Pope Pelagius II, died of plague
 
582-602 Maurice, Byzantine emperor
 
587 Visigoths of Spain converted to Christianity
 
589 Lombards of Italy converted to Christianity
 
590 Plague in Rome
 
590-604 Pope Gregory I, commanded that a way be found to collect and preserve the 
 
singing of the Benedictine monks of Santo Domingo de Silos (now known as 
 
Gregorian Chant)
 
594 End of plague which began in 542 and "halved" the population of Europe!
 
596 St. Augustine of Canterbury sent to convert Britain to Christianity
 
600? Codex Harleianus vg(Z): Latin Vulgate Gospels
 
600? Codex Philoxenian/Harclean Syr(ph/h): Syriac 27NT, "Western" text-type
 
602-610 Phocas, Byzantine emperor after killing Maurice
 
604-606 Pope Sabinian, authorized by Phocas
 
606-607 Pope Boniface III, authorized by Phocas
 
607-615 Pope Boniface IV, authorized by Phocas
 
609 Roman Pantheon (a Pagan Temple) renamed Church of Santa Maria Rotonda
 
610-641 Heraclius, Byzantine emperor after killing Phocas
 
611 Mohammed's reported vision of Allahon Mount Hira
 
614 Persians take Damascas and Jerusalem and "Holy Cross of Christ"
 
615 earliest records of some of Mohammed's teachings
 
615-618 Pope Deusdedit
 
619-625 Pope Boniface V, authorized by Heraclius
 
622-680 Monothelite controversy: condemned at 6th Ecum. Council of Constantinople
 
622 first year in Muslim calendar, The Hegira, 1a.h., (a.h. = anno hegirae)
 
624 Mohammed marries Aisha, daughter of Abu Bekr
 
625 Paulinus of Rome comes to convert Northumbria to Christianity
 
625-638 Pope Honorius I
 
625 Mohammed begins dictation of Qur'an (Koran) to his scribe
 
626 King Edwin of Northumbria founds Edinburgh and begins Christianization
 
627 Byzantines defeat Persians at Nineveh
 
628-643:Isho Yahab was the Nestorian Patriarch
 
628 Emperor Heraclius wins back "Cross of Christ" from Persians
 
628 Mohammed captures Mecca & writes to rulers of the world explaining Islam
 
629:Consecration of Morooso as 1st Malpan
 
629 Heraclius recovers Jerusalem from Persians
 
629 Pope Honorius I sides with Emperor Heraclius and Monothelites (622)
 
632 Mohammed, b. 570?, Arab prophet and founder of Islam
 
632 East Anglia Christianized
 
632 Abu Bekr, first Islamic Caliph, seat at Medina
 
634 Omar I, 2d Caliph, takes Syria/Persia/Egypt;defeats Heraclius in Holy War
 
635 Christianization of Wessex
 
635-750 Damascus becomes capital of Islamic Caliphs
 
636 Southern Irish Church submits to Roman Catholicism
 
637 Jerusalem captured by Islam
 
638 Emp. Heraclius' "Ecthesis", decrees Christ of one nature: "Monothelites"
 
640 Pope Severinus
 
640 Library of Alexandria, "The Center of Western Culture," with 300,000 
 
ancient papyrus scrolls, is completely distroyed.
 
 
 
640-1380 Period between destruction of Library of Alexandria and the first complete 
 
English translation of the Bible
 
 
 
640-642 Pope John IV
 
642-649 Pope Theodore I
 
649-654 Pope Martin I, martyr
 
654-657 Pope Eugene I
 
657-673 Pope Vitalian
 
673-676 Pope Adeodatus II
 
676-678 Pope Donus
 
678-682 Pope Agatho
 
682-684 Pope Leo II
 
684-685 Pope Benedict II
 
685-686 Pope John V
 
686-687 Pope Conon
 
687 Anti-Pope Theodore
 
687 Anti-Pope Paschal
 
687-701 Pope Sergius I
 
690? Earliest Bible translations into England's vernacular, continued work by Bede 
 
and others from this point forward
 
701-705 Pope John VI
 
705-708 Pope John VII
 
708 Pope Sisinnius
 
708-715 Pope Constantine
 
715-731 Pope Gregory II
 
731-741 Pope Gregory III
 
741-752 Pope Zachary
 
750? Tower added to St Peter's Basilica at the front of the atrium
 
752-757 Pope Stephen II (III)
 
757-768 Pope Paul I
 
767 Anti-Pope Constantine
 
768 Anti-Pope Philip
 
768-772 Pope Stephen III (IV)
 
772-795 Pope Adrian I
 
774:13th century- Viraraghavan Perumal gave a copper plaque (Vira Raghavan Perumal Chepped) granting certain titles and privileges to Eravikarthen of Mahadevar Pattanam (Kollam).9th century- persian- palavi scripts engraved on stone crosses are installed in the churches in Kerala- Knanya Valiya Palli, Kottayam,Kadamattom, Alangad,Muttuchira Catholic Church
 
780-823:Thimothy I was the Patriarch
 
795-816 Pope Leo III
 
800-1102:Kulasekhara rule in Malankara
 
816-817 Pope Stephen IV (V)
 
817-824 Pope Paschal I
 
823:Immigration of Mar Sabresho,Mar Aphrod at Kollam
 
824-827 Pope Eugene II
 
825-858:Theodosius was the Patriarch
 
827 Pope Valentine
 
827-844 Pope Gregory IV
 
844 Anti-Pope John
 
844-847 Pope Sergius II
 
847-855 Pope Leo IV
 
849:King Ayyanadikal of Venad, by the Tharisappalli copper plate grants reconfirms the 72 royal privileges of the Nazranies (Kollam Chepped) 850? King Alfred translation of several Bible books into English vernacular, also 
 
done by Aldhelm and Aelfric
 
855-858 Pope Benedict III
 
855 Anti-Pope Anastasius
 
856 Earthquake in Corinth kills 45,000
 
858-867 Pope Nicholas I
 
867-872 Pope Adrian II
 
868:Kaphthurtha Synod
 
872-882 Pope John VII
 
882-884 Pope Marinus I
 
883:King Alfred's envoys Sighelm and Aethelstan conveys alms to St.Thomas in India
 
883 Anglo-Saxons bishops sent by King Alfred visit the tomb of St. Thomas (Mylapore).
 
884-885 Pope Adrian III
 
885-891 Pope Stephen V (VI)
 
891-896 Pope Formosus
 
896 Pope Boniface VI
 
896-897 Pope Stephen VI (VII)
 
897 Pope Romanus
 
897-898 Pope Theodore II
 
898-900 Pope John IX
 
900-903 Pope Benedict IV
 
903-904 Pope Leo V
 
903 Anti-Pope Christopher
 
904-911 Pope Sergius III
 
905:Mar Dehanaha,Raban,Younan,Maravan at Malankara.
 
911-913 Pope Anastasius III
 
913-914 Pope Landus
 
914-928 Pope John X
 
928 Pope Leo VI
 
928-931 Pope Stephen VII (VIII)
 
931-936 Pope John XI
 
936-939 Pope Leo VII
 
939-942 Pope Stephen VIII (IX)
 
942-946 Pope Marinus II
 
946-955 Pope Agapitus II
 
955-963 Pope John XII
 
963-964 Pope Leo VIII
 
964-965 Pope Benedict V
 
965-973 Pope John XIII
 
973-974 Pope Benedict VI
 
974 Anti-Pope Boniface VII
 
974-983 Pope Benedict VII
 
983-985 Pope John XIV
 
985-996 Pope John XV
 
988:Mar Yuhanon Metropolitan(Persian Bishop) at Malankara
 
996-999 Pope Gregory V
 
997 Anti-Pope John XVI
 
999-1003 Pope Sylvester II
 
1003-1004 Pope John XVII
 
1004-1009 Pope John XVIII
 
1009-1012 Pope Sergius IV
 
1012-1024 Pope Benedict VIII
 
1012 Anti-Pope Gregory
 
1024-1032 Pope John XIX
 
1032-1045 Pope Benedict IX
 
1045 Pope Sylvester III
 
1045 Pope Benedict IX
 
1045-1046 Pope Gregory VI
 
1046-1047 Pope Clement II
 
1047-1048 Pope Benedict IX
 
1048-1049 Pope Damasus II
 
1049-1055 Pope Leo IX
 
1054 Split between Eastern and Western churches formalized, Orthodox Church 
 
founded
 
1055-1057 Pope Victor II
 
1056:Mar Yuseph Metropolitan(Persian Bishop) at Malankara
 
1057-1059 Pope Stephen IX (X)
 
1057 Earthquake in Cilicia (Asia Minor) kills 60,000
 
1058 Anti-Pope Benedict X
 
1059-1061 Pope Nicholas II
 
1061-1073 Pope Alexender II
 
1061 Anti-Pope Honorius II
 
1073-1086 Gregory VII
 
1080 Anti-Pope Clement III
 
1086-1088 Pope Victor III
 
1088-1099 Pope Urban II
 
1095-1291 10 Crusades, 1st called by Pope Urban II, to restore Asia Minor to Byzantium 
 
and conquer the Holy Land from the Turks
 
1098:Edessa captured by Emir of Mosul
 
1099-1118 Pope Paschal II
 
1100 Anti-Pope Theodoric
 
1102 Anti-Pope Albert
 
1105 Anti-Pope Sylvester IV
 
1118-1119 Pope Gelasius II
 
1118 Anti-Pope Gregory VIII
 
1119-1124 Pope Callistus II
 
1122:Mar Yakob Metropolitan(Persian Bishop) at Malankara
 
1124-1130 Pope Honorius II
 
1124 Anti-Pope Celestine II
 
1130-1143 Pope Innocent II
 
1130 Anti-Pope Anacletus II
 
1138 Anti-Pope Victor IV
 
1142:Relics of St.Thomas shifted to Chieos
 
1143-1144 Pope Celestine II
 
1144-1145 Pope Lucius II
 
1145-1153 Pope Eugene III
 
1153-1154 Pope Anastasius IV
 
1154-1159 Pope Adrian IV
 
1159-1181 Pope Alexander III
 
1159 Anti-Pope Victor IV
 
1164 Anti-Pope Paschal III
 
1168 Anti-Pope Callistus III
 
1179 Anti-Pope Innocent III
 
1181-1185 Pope Lucius III
 
1185-1187 Pope Urban III
 
1187 Pope Gregory VIII
 
1187-1191 Pope Clement III
 
1191 Pope Celestine III
 
1198-1216 Pope Innocent III
 
1206 Rosary is reportedly given to St. Dominic by an apparition of Mary
 
1215 Dominican order begun
 
1216-1227 Pope Honorius III
 
1221:Mar Yuseph Metropolitan(Persian Bishop) at Malankara
 
1223 Franciscan order begun
 
1225-1274 Thomas Aquinas, theologian and philosopher
 
1226-86:Bar Hebraeus,Catholicose of Persia
 
1227-1241 Pope Gregory IX
 
1241-1243 Pope Celestine IV
 
1243-1254 Pope Innocent IV
 
1254-1261 Pope Alexander IV
 
1260 Date which a 1988 Vatican sponsored scientific study places the origin of the 
 
Shroud of Turin
 
1261-1265 Pope Urban IV
 
1265-1271 Pope Clement IV
 
1271-1276 Pope Gregory X
 
1276 Pope Innocent V
 
1276 Pope Adrian V
 
1276-1277 Pope John XXI
 
1277-1294 Pope Nicholas IV
 
1285:Mar David Metropolitan (Persian Bishop) at Malankara
 
1292:Marco Polo a Venetian traveler, visited the tomb of St. Thomas (at Mylapore), and Kerala
 
c. 1293 Marco Polo stays on the Coromandel Coast, describes the tomb of St. Thomas as a place of pilgrimage, and visits Christians and Jews in Quilon.
 
 
1294 Pope Celestine V
 
1294-1303 Pope Boniface VIII
 
1303-1305 Pope Benedict XI
 
1305-1316 Pope Clement V
 
1316-1334 Pope John XXII
 
1321? The Divine Comedy, by Dante Alighieri
 
1324: Oderic the Italian Franciscan speaks about Mylapore
 
1328 Anti-Pope Nicholas V
 
1329:Dominican Metropolitan Jordana at Quilon
 
1334-1342 Pope Benedict XII
 
1341:The disappearance of Musseris and Mahadevar towns due to floods
 
1342-1352 Pope Clement VI
 
1350? English begins to emerge as the national language of England
 
1350? Renaissance begins in Italy
 
1352-1362 Pope Innocent VI
 
1354 Earliest extant documentation stating the existence of the Shroud of Turin
 
1362-1370 Pope Urban V
 
1370-1378 Pope Gregory XI
 
1378-1389 Pope Urban VI
 
1378 Anti-Pope Clement VII
 
 
 
1380-1517 Period between the 1st complete English translation of the Bible and Martin 
 
Luther's 95 Theses
 
 
 
1380-1382 John Wycliffe, eminant theologian at Oxford, makes NT (1380) and OT (with 
 
help of Nicholas of Hereford) (1382) translations in English, 1st complete 
 
translation to English, included deutercanonical books, preached against 
 
abuses, expressed unorthodox views of the sacraments (Penance and 
 
Eucharist), the use of relics, and against celibacy of the clergy
 
1384 John Purvey, follower of John Wycliffe, revises Wycliffe's translation
 
1389-1404 Pope Boniface IX
 
1390? Wycliffe's teachings condemned repeatedly in England
 
1394 Anti-Pope Benedict XIII
 
1404-1406 Pope Innocent VII
 
1406-1417 Pope Gregory XII
 
1407:Mar Yabalaho Metropolitan (Persian Bishop) at Malankara
 
1408 Council of Oxford forbids translations of the Scriptures into the vernacular 
 
unless and until they were fully approved by Church authority, sparked by 
 
Wycliffite Bible, Sir Thomas More said: "It neither for biddith the translations 
 
to be read that were already well done of old before Wycliffe's days, nor 
 
damneth his because it was new but because it was naught; nor prohibiteth 
 
new to be made but provideth that they shall not be read if they be made 
 
amiss till they be by good examination amended." ("A Dialogue against 
 
Heresies")
 
1409 Anti-Pope Alexander V
 
1410 Anti-Pope John XXIII
 
1412-1431 St. Joan of Arc, French national heroine
 
1415 Council of Florence condemns all of Wycliffe's works, but the actual Bibles 
 
continued to be used after having the heretical prologue removed, and were 
 
possessed by both religious houses and those of the nobility and tacitly 
 
accepted by Catholics
 
1417-1431 Pope Martin V
 
1431-1447 Pope Eugene IV
 
1439 Anti-Pope Felix V
 
1447-1455 Pope Nicholas V
 
1453 Byzantium succeeded by the Ottoman Empire
 
1455-1458 Pope Callistus III
 
1458-1464 Pope Pius II
 
1464-1471 Pope Paul II
 
1466-1536 Desiderius Erasmus, Dutch scholar, Greek NT used in many 16th century 
 
translations
 
1471-1484 Pope Sixtus IV
 
1473-1481 Sistine Chapel built, under supervision of Giovanni de Dolci
 
1478 Inquisition established by Pope Sixtus IV
 
1483-1546 Martin Luther, leader of Protestant reformation, preached that only faith 
 
leads to salvation without mediation of clergy or good works, attacked 
 
authority of the Pope, rejected priestly celibacy, recommended individual 
 
study of the Bible (see 1517, 1522)
 
1484-1492 Pope Innocent VIII
 
1488-1569 Miles Coverdale, Augustinian friar who left the Order, repudiated 
 
Catholicism, 1st Protestant Bishop of Exeter
 
1490:3 persons from Malankara set forth to meet the Caldeah Patriarch Mar Shemavu. Two of them received priest hood Fr. Joseph and Fr. Geevarghese. In 1496 they returned with Metropolitans Mar Thomas and Mar Yuhanon
 
1491-1556 Ignatius of Loyola, founded the Jesuit order (see 1534)
 
1492 Christopher Columbus's first voyage, discovers San Salvador - begins
 
Spanish colonization of the New World
 
1492-1503 Pope Alexander VI
 
1498:On May 21 Vasco Da Gama, Portuguese sailor arrived for the first time in Kappad near Kozhikode
 
1500:On 30 August Portuguese Admiral Pedro Alvarez Cabral visited Kozhikode and 1501:Fr. Joseph along with Cabral go on a Europeantour
 
1502:On 29 October Portuguese sailor Vasco Da Gama comes to Kozhikode the second time.
 
1502:On November 19 the Christians of Kodungalloor meet Vasco Da Gama for the first time.
 
1502 Thomas Christian leaders ask Vasco da Gama for an alliance against Muslim predators.
 
The Dawn of Missions
 
 
1503-04:Portuguese captured Cochin, Cranganore. Dominican Priests at Kochi.
 
1503-49:The three Metropolitans, namely Mar Yabella, Mar Denaha and Mar Jocob, Nestorian bishops, in Malankara
 
1503: Sep 27 Work commenced on Cochin Fort and the Santa Cruz church
 
Kochi
 
 
 
1503 Pope Pius III
 
1503-1513 Pope Julius II
 
1505-1572 John Knox, Protestant reformer in Scotland (see 1560)
 
1506 Pope Julius II orders the Old St Peter's Basilica torn down and authorizes 
 
Donato Bramante to plan a new structure, demolition completed in 1606
 
1508-1512 Michelangelo frescoes the Sistine Chapel's vaulted ceiling
 
1509-1547 Henry VIII ruler of England
 
1509-1564 John Calvin, preached predetermination, good conduct and success were signs 
 
of election
 
1513-1522 Pope Leo X
 
1514: Portuguese Padroado begun.
 
1517-1994 Modern Era of Christianity - Luther, Calvin lay the seeds of modern 
 
Protestantism, England breaks away from the Catholic Church
 
 
 
1517 95 Theses (Martin Luther)
 
1518-1532 St Terese of Avila
 
1520 Luther excommunicated
 
1522-1523 Pope Adrian VI
 
1522 Luther�s German NT translation
 
1523-1534 Pope Clement VII
 
1523:Portugues opened the Tomb of St. Thomas
 
1524:Dec 24 Vasco de Gama buried at St. Francis Church, Fort Cochin
 
1524 South German peasant uprising, repressed with Luther's support, begins 1.5 
 
century long religious wars
 
1525-1534 Tyndale�s translation of the NT from Greek text of Erasmus (1466) compared 
 
against the Vulgate and the Pentateuch from the Hebrew (1525) compared to 
 
Vulgate and Luther's German version (1530), first printed edition, used as a
 
vehicle by Tyndale for bitter attacks on the Church, reflects influence of 
 
Luther's NT of 1522 in rejecting "priest" for "elder", "church" for 
 
"Congregation"
 
1530 Augsburg Confession, Martin Luther founds the Lutheran Church
 
1531 Reported apparition of Mary at Guadalupe, Mexico, considered "worthy of 
 
belief" by the Catholic Church
 
1531 Earthquake in Lisbon, Portugal kills 30,000
 
1534 Henry VIII breaks England away from the Catholic church, confiscates 
 
monastic property, beginning of Episcopal Church 
 
1534:Nov 3 Goa Diocese errected. The Parishes of Kannur, Cochin, Quilon, Colombo and Sao Tome (Madras) belonged to it
 
1534-1550 Pope Paul III
 
1534 Jesuit order founded by Lyola (1491-1556), helped reconvert large areas of 
 
Poland, Hungary, and S. Germany and sent missionaries to the New World,
 
India, and China
 
1535-1537 Coverdale�s Bible (see 1488), used Tyndale's (1525) translation along with 
 
Latin and German versions, included Apocrypha at the end of the OT (like 
 
Luther) as was done in later English versions, 1537 edition received royal 
 
license, but banned in 1546
 
1536 Tyndale put to death, left his OT translation in manuscript, English 
 
ecclesiaastical authorities ordered his Bible burned because it was thought to 
 
be part of Lutheran reform
 
1537-1551 Matthew Bible, by John Rogers (1500-1555), based on Tyndale and 
 
Coverdale received royal license but not authorized for use in public worship, 
 
numerous editions, 1551 edition contained offensive notes (based on Tyndale)
 
1536-1541 Michelangelo paints the Last Judgement
 
1539-1552 Richard Taverner's (1505-1577) revisions of Matthew Bible, mostly NT 
 
revisions since he didn't know Hebrew, 1st edition most reliable
 
1539-1569 Great Bible, by Thomas Cromwell, 1st English Bible to be authorized for 
 
public use in English churches, defective in many places, based on last 
 
Tyndale's NT of 1534-1535, corrected by a Latin version of the Hebrew OT, 
 
Latin Bible of Erasmus, and Complutensian Polyglot, last edition 1569, never 
 
denounced by England
 
1540.A franciscan seminary is established in Kodungalloor
 
1542-51:The Jesuit Missionary Francis Xavier arrives in Malankara
 
1542 Conocation makes an unsuccessful attempt to correct the Great Bible against 
 
the Vulgate
 
1542 Jesuit missionary Francis Xavier and two Tamil assistants teach the Apostles' Creed, Lord's Prayer, and Ten Commandments to Paravars (fisherfolk on Coromandel Coast), baptizing 10,000 in a single month.
 
1543 Parliament bans Tyndale's translation as a "crafty, false and untrue 
 
translation", although 80% of the words were in the RV
 
1545:Mar Abraham Metropolitan (Persian Bishop) at Malankara
 
1545-1563 Council of Trent, Catholic Reformation, or counter-reformation, met 
 
Protestant challenge, clearly defining an official theology
 
1546 King Henry VIII forbids anyone to have a copy of Tyndale's or Coverdale's NT
 
1547-1553 Edward VI ruler of England
 
1548:Dominican Monastery founded in Cochin
 
1549:Mar Abuna Jacob, A Chaldean Bishop, stayed at St. Antonio Monastery, Cochin
 
1549 Book of Common Prayer (Episcopal Church)
 
1550: First Jesuit House in Kochi
 
1550-1555 Pope Julius III
 
1550? St. Thomas More, Cranmer, and Foxe affirm the existence of English versions 
 
of portions of the Bible, including the Gospels (11th century), Mark, Luke, 
 
Epistles of Paul (14th century), Apocalypse (11th century)
 
1552:Dec 3 Death of St. Francis Xavier
 
1553-1558 Mary I ruler of England, publications of English Scriptures cease (except for 
 
Geneva NT of 1557), many clerics leave England
 
1553 Pontifical Gregorian University founded at Vatican City
 
1555:Mattancherry Palace was built by Portuguese for the King of Cochin
 
1555 Pope Marcellus II
 
1555-1559 Pope Paul IV
 
1556-69:Mar Joseph,Nestorian bishop, in Malankara
 
1556 Beza�s Latin NT
 
1557:Goa made an Archbishopric
 
1558-1603 Elizabeth I ruler of England
 
1559-1566 Pope Pius IV
 
1560 Geneva Bible, NT a revision of Matthew's version of Tyndale with use of 
 
Beza's NT (1556), OT a thorough revision of Great Bible, appointed to be read 
 
in Scotland (but not England), at least 140 editions
 
1560 Scotch Presbyterian Church founded by John Knox (1505-1572), due to 
 
disagreement with Lutherans over sacraments and church government
 
1563 39 Articles (Episcopal Church)
 
1565:Archdiocese of Angamaly erected
 
1566-1572 Pope Pius V
 
1567:Jews shifted Mattancherry.
 
1568:Synagogue of White Jews built in Cochin.
 
1568-97:Mar Abraham,Nestorian bishop,in Malankara
 
1571 Superior force of Turks intent upon conquering Christian Europe is beaten 
 
decisively by Christian sailors reportedly calling upon the name of Our Lady
 
of the Rosary
 
1572-1585 Pope Gregory XIII
 
1572-1606 Bishop�s Bible, an inadequate and unsatisfactory revision of the Great Bible 
 
checked against the Hebrew text, 1st to be published in England by episcopal 
 
authority
 
1572 with use of Rheims NT of 1582 - included Apocropha, alterations found in many editions through 1800, revisors accused of being "damnable corrupters of God's word"
 
1577:Vaippicotta Seminary of the Jesuits started.
 
1579:Augustinians reached Cochin.
 
1582 Rheims NT, based on Coverdale, Bishops', Geneva, follows Wycliffe
 
1583:Synod at Angamaly by Bishop Mar Abraham
 
1585-1590 Pope Sixtus V
 
1590-1591 Pope Urban VII
 
1590 Sistine edition of the Vulgate
 
1590 Michelangelo�s dome in St Peter's Basilica completed
 
1591-1592 Pope Innocent IX
 
1592-1605 Pope Clement VIII
 
1596 Ukranian Catholic Church forms when Ukranian subjects of the king of Poland 
 
are reunited with Rome, largest Byzantine Catholic Church
 
1597:Bishop Mar Abraham, the last foreign Archbishop, died and was laid to rest at St. Hormis church, Angamaly
 
1598:Mar Alleshu Metropolitan (Paranki Bishop) at Malankara.
 
1599-1653:Roman Period
 
1599:Dec 20 Fr. Francis Roz was declared bishop of Angamaly.
 
1599:Jun 20-26 Archbishop Alexis Menezes convenes the Synod of Diamper (Udayamperoor), the Mar Thoma Christians were transferred from the Eastern Syrian Church to the Roman Catholic Church.
 
1600:Aug 4 Padroado rule imposed on Nazranies.
 
1601-24:Francis Roz,as the first Latin bishop of the St. Thomas Christians
 
1603-1625 James I ruler of England, 1st to call himself King of Great Britain, became 
 
official with Act of Union in 1707
 
1604:Geevarghese Archadiyoken died
 
1605 Pope Leo XI
 
1605-1621 Pope Paul V
 
1606 Roberto de Nobili begins a 50-year career in the Jesuit Madurai Mission, adopting Brahman culture and becoming a renowned scholar and poet.
 
1606 Carlo Maderno redesigns St Peter's Basilica into a Latin cross
 
1609 Baptist Church founded by John Smyth, due to objections to infant baptism 
 
and demands for church-state separation
 
1609-1610 Rheims-Douay Bible, 1st Catholic English translation, OT published in two 
 
volumes, based on an unofficial Louvain text corrected by Sistine Vulgate 
 
(1590), NT is Rheims text of 1582
 
1609:Dec.3 Erection of the Diocese of Cranganore. The Archdiocese of Angamaly suppressed.
 
1610:Dec 22 The Metropolitan of Goa limits the Pastoral Jurisdiction of Nazranies to Malabar.
 
1611-1800 King James (Authorized) Version, based on Bishop's Bible of 
1621-1623 Pope Gregory XV
 
1622 Congregatio de Propaganda Fide is created to send missionaries into areas of India outside of Portuguese Padroado authority.
 
1623-1644 Pope Urban VIII
 
1624 Dominican Seminary at Kaduthuruthy.
 
1624-1641:The administration of the Jesuit Arch Bishop Stephen D Britto
 
1625-1649 Charles I ruler of England
 
1626:Feb 5 Edappally Ashram started for the Religious Community of St. Thomas Christians
 
1633 AV published in Scotland
 
1644 Long Parliament directed that only Hebrew canon only be read in the Church 
 
of England (effectively removed the Apocropha)
 
1641-1659:The administration of the Jesuit Arch Bishop Francis Garcia
 
1644-1655 Pope Innocent X
 
1648-1649:Archdeacon Thomas writes to the Churches of Alexandria, Antioch and Babylon for help
 
 
 
1637-70:Archdeacon Parambil Thomas(1637-53)
 
1652:Aug 23 Mar Ahathulla arrived at Surat,Mylapore,Cochin,The Jesuit of Mylapore, Mar Ahatulla in jail,the visit to Mylapore by ship with two deacons,Kochiyitty and Kurien
 
1653 May 16:The Oath of Coonen Cross at Mattancherry, Cochin some Thomas Christians declare independence from Roman Catholic authority
 
 
1653:The first Indian Bishop Mar Thoma I, was raised to the dignity by Twelve Priests at Alangad
 
1653-70 Mar Thoma I(1653-70)
 
1653-1658 Oliver Cromwell ruler of England
 
1655-1667 Pope Alexander VII
 
 
1658-1712 Richard Cromwell ruler of England
 
1657-1663 Carmelite Fathers -Fr.Joseph and Fr. Hyacinth convene a reconciliation meetting
 
1657:Apostolic Commissary Joseph of St. Mary ocd (Sebastiani), a Carmelite, in Malabar.
 
1659:Dec 3 The Vicariate of Malabar is erected by Pope Alexander VII.
 
1659:Dec 24 Joseph Sebastini bishop and appointed the Vicar Apostolic of Malabar.
 
1660-1685 Charles II king of England, restoration of monarchy in England beginning under 
 
Charles II, continuing through James II, reversed decision of Long Parliament 
 
of 1644, reinstating the Apocrypha, reversal not heeded by non-conformists
 
1661-63:Dutch capture Kollam (1661), Kodungalloor (1662) and Kochi (1663) from the Portuguese
 
1663:Bishop Joseph Sebastini consecrates Chandy Kathanar (Palliveettil) of Pakalomattom family as Metropolitan Alexander D Kampo of the Romo- Syrian denomination.
Malankara Church divided into two factions.
a. Malankara Syrian Church
b. Roma Syrian Church
 
1665:Mar Gregorios of Jeruselem came to Malankara
 
 
 
1667-1670 Pope Clement IX
 
1667 Earthquake in Shemaka, Caucasia kills 80,000
 
1670:Mar Thoma I pass away on 22 April. His mortal remains interred in St. Mary's Church, Angamali.
 
1670-1686:Mar Thoma II
 
1671:Mar Gregorios passes away on 24 April. Laid to rest in Mar Thoma Church, North Paravur
 
1670-1676 Pope Clement X
 
1676-1689 Pope Innocent XI
 
 
 
1682:Seminary for Syrians at Verapoly
 
1685:Two Metropolitans from Syria visit Malankara
a. Mar Baselios yeldo (1685). Passes away after thirteen days. (September 29) His mortal remains interred in Mar Thoman Church, Kothamangalam.
b. Mar Ivanios Hidayathulla (1685-93) was laid to rest in Mar Thoman Church Mulanthuruthy.
 
1686-1688:Mar Thoma III
 
1686: On 31 April Mar Thoma II's demise. Laid to rest in St. Mary's Church, Niranam
 
1686:Hortus Malabaricus in 12 volumes printed in 17 years.
 
1685-1688 James II king of England, deposed
 
 
 
1687:Jan 2 Bishop Mar Chandy Palliveettil expires.
 
1688: On 19 April Mar Thoma III's demise. Lay to rest Mar Thoman Church, Kadambanad
 
1688-1728:Mar Thoma IV
 
 
 
1689-1702 William III king of England, with Mary II as queen until 1694
 
1689-1691 Pope Alexander VIII
 
1691-1700 Pope Innocent XII
 
 
1692:Mar Anthrayose demise. Lay to rest Kallada Pally, Kallada
 
1693 Earthquake in Catania, Italy kills 60,000
 
1694:Mar Ivanios Hidayathulla's demise. Lay to rest Mulanthuruthy Church, Mulanthuruthy
 
 
1700:Feb 20 Fr. Angelus Francis, a Carmelite, is appointed as the Vicar Apostolic of Malabar
 
1700-1721 Pope Clement XI
 
1702-1714 Anne queen of England
 
1706 German Pietists Bartholomaeus Ziegenbalg and Heinrich Plütschau reach Tranquebar and establish a printing press and charity school.
 
1708:The arrival of Mar Gabriel Caldaeh. Death in 1731
 
1709:Mar 13 Vicariate of Malabar is suppressed and Pope Clement XI erects the Vicariate of Verapoly
 
1710 Jesuit missionary Constanzo Giuseppe Beschi begins a spectacular career as the greatest Tamil scholar of the age.
 
1714 AV published in Ireland
 
1718 Catholic English version of NT by Dr. Nary, much less bulky than Reims-
 
Douay
 
1721-1724 Pope Innocent XIII
 
1724-1730 Pope Benedict XIII
 
1727-1760 George II king of England
 
1728:On 24 March Mar Thoma IV's demise. Laid to rest in Kandanad
 
1728-1765:Mar Thoma V
 
1730-1740 Pope Clement XII
 
1730 Catholic English version of NT, revision of Reims NT by Dr. Robert Witham
 
1731:Mar Gabriel demise. Lay to rest Cheriya Pally, Kottayam
 
1733 Aaron becomes the first Tamil evangelical pastor in Thanjavur.
 
 
1738-1816 New Catholic English versions of NT by Dr. Richard Challoner and Francis 
 
Blyth O.D.C., Bernard MacMahon, Dr Troy
 
1740-1758 Pope Benedict XIV
 
1748-97:Mar Ivanios, bishop, in Malankara
 
1750 C. F. Schwartz begins career as a renowned evangelical missionary-statesman-scholar, diplomat, and mentor to leaders of later mass conversion movements in Tirunelveli.
 
1752 AV published in New World colonies
 
1751:The arrival of Catholicos Mar Baselios Shakralla,Yuhanon Mar Gregorios,Yuhanon Ramban (Mar Ivanios 1752) on 4 May.
 
1754:A Treaty of Friendship between Mar Thoma and Syrian Metropolitans
 
1755 Earthquake in Northern Persia kills 40,000
 
1755 Earthquake in Lisbon, Portugal kills 60,000 (estimated at 8.75 Richter)
 
1758-1769 Pope Clement XIII
 
1760-1820 George III king of England
 
1761:On 10 July Consecration of Metropolitan Mar Thoma VI
 
1764:On 20 October, Catholicos Baselios Shakalla's Demise.He was laid to rest in the Marthamariam church, Kandanad.
 
1765:On 8 May Mar Thoma V passes away. Laid to rest in Niranam.
 
1765-1808:Mar Thoma VI (Mar Dionysius I)
 
1769-1775 Pope Clement XIV
 
1770:On 10 July Mar Gregorios consecrates Mar Dionysios as Mar Thoma VI
 
1771-72:Mar Gregorios consecrates Kattumangatt Kurian Ramban as Mar Coorilos at Mattancherry Church. Mar Coorilos established an independent Church in Thozhiyoor
 
1772:Mar Thoma VI accepted re-ordination by Mar Gregorios assisted by Mar Ivanios
 
1772:First Malayalam book "Sampskhepa Vedartham" (Rome) by Clement Pianius.
 
1775-1800 Pope Pius VI
 
1773:Establishment of an Independent Thozhiyoor Syrian
 
1773:Mar Gregorios passes away. Laid to rest in Mulanthuruthy.
 
1773:Pope Clement XIV suppresses the Jesuit Order, except in Russia and Prussia.
 
1773 Indian Empire (Raj) established.
 
1776 British colonies in America declare independence from England, American 
 
Revolution
 
1778-1792:Efforts to reconcile with the Roman Catholic Church
 
1782:Dec 16 Kariyattil Joseph elected Archbp. of Cranganore; Consecr. Lisbon 1783; Died Goa on the way back to Malabar, 9th Sept. 1786.
 
1783 Earthquake in Calabria, Italy kills 30,000
 
1785:"Varthamanappusthakam", the first written travelogue in India by Paremakkal Thomma Kathanar.
 
1789-92:Tippu Sultan's attack the destruction of Churches from Kunnamkulam to Angamali the forceful conversion and persecution of Christians shifting of Church headquarters from Kandanad to Kottayam.
 
1792:Thachil Mathu Tharakan's manoeuvres- Mar Dionysios in prison leaves Alleppy.
 
1792 William Carey's Enquiry into the Obligations of Christians to Use Means for the Conversion of Heathens evokes waves of evangelical missionary voluntarism.
 
 
1795:Oct 20 Conquest of Cochin by the British.
 
1796:Mar Dionysios consecrates Ramban Mathew as the succeeding Metropolitan (Mar Thoma VII) on 5 May at Chengannur.
 
1797 Earthquake in Quito, Ecuador kills 41,000
 
1799 Serampore Mission established by William Carey, Joshua Marshman, and David Ward.1714-1727 George I king of England1738 Methodist Church founded by Rev John Wesley
 
1800-1823 Pope Pius VII
 
1805-9:Metropolitan Theoscoros arrives from Syria.(Dionysios sent back this Metropolitan on the strength of his administrative authorities)
 
1806:On 23 November, Dr. Claudius Bukanan the principal of Fort William College, Calcutta, meets Mar Dionysios at Kandanad Church
 
1807:Ramabn Philipose of Kayamkulam translates the Bible ino Malayalam
 
1808:Mar Dionysios deposits 3000 puvarahan (10,000 rupees) with the East India company as interest money at the rate of 8%
 
1808:On 8 April,Mar Dionysios passes away and laid to rest at St.Mary's Church, Puthencavu.
 
1809:Mar Thoma VIl receives for the first time the interest of the 'Vattipanam'.
 
1808-09:Mar Thoma VII
 
1809:On 2 July,Mar Thoma VIII takes charge of the Church administration
 
1809:Mar Thoma VII passes away on 4 July. Burial at Kolencherry.
 
1809-16:Mar Thoma VIII
 
1809:Pulikottil Joseph Malpan receives the title of Ramban from Mar Thoma
 
1809:Assembly at Kandanad
 
1810:Ramban Joseph consults Colonel John Mundro to establish a seminary for priests.
 
1801-1877 Brigham Young, Mormon leader, colonized Utah
 
1811 Dr. Hay's revision of Challoner's version
 
1813 American Congregationalists (A.B.C.F.M.) found the Maratha Mission. Other missions soon follow.
 
1820-1830 George IV king of England
 
1822 Earthquake in Aleppo, Asia Minor kills 22,000
 
1815 Catholic Bible Society NT, based on Challoner's
 
1811:The Malayalam Bible translated by Ramban Philipose of Kayamkulam is printed in courien press and 100 copies of the same handed over by Dr. Claudius Bukanan to Mar Thoma.
 
1811:On 11 November Ramban Philipose of Kayamkulam passes away. His mortal remains were interred in Kannamkode Church, Adoor.
 
1813:Colonel Munro hands over Rs. 3360, which is, interest amount of the 'Vattipanam' for the years 1809 to 1813 to Ramban Joseph for constructing a seminary
 
1813- 15 Rani Gauri Lakshmi gifts 16 acres of land in Govind Village in Kottaym, exempting it from taxes for the purpose of building a Seminary. The construction of the building started in 1813. In 1815 the work was completed and it became operational
 
1815:On 21 March Pulikottil Joseph Mar Dionysios became Metropolitan. On 12 February 1816 there was a Royal Proclamation
 
1815-16:Pulukottil Joseph Mar Dionysios II
 
1816:Mar Thoma VIII passes away on 22 January. He was laid to rest in St. Mary's Church, Puthencavu
 
1816:On 24 November Pulikottil Mar Dionysios Passes away and was laid to rest in the Old Seminary
 
1816:Mar Thoma IX
 
1816-17:Mar Philoxenos,Kidangan(Thozhiyur)
 
1817-25:Punnathara Mar Dionysios III
 
1817:For the first time in Kerala, English education was introduced in Old Seminary, Kottayam.
 
1816-19:Arrival of CMS missionaries
 
1818:"Mavelikara Assembly" is held on 3 December at St. Mary's Church, Puthiyakavu
 
1816-1829 Challoner�s 3rd revision, Dr. John Lingard's translation from Greek using 
 
Vulgate when possible
 
1823-1829 Pope Leo XII
 
1825-26:Mar Athanasios arrives from Syria. The Government sent him away from the country because of his stubborn interference in the Church matters of Malankara
 
1827 Mormon Church founded by Joseph Smith as a result of reported visions of 
 
the Angel Moroni
 
1825-55:Cheppad Mar Dionysios IV
 
1829:Through the efforts of Benjamin Bailey a Malayalam New Testament is published
 
1829-1831 Pope Pius VIII
 
1830-1837 William IV king of England
 
1830 Reported apparition of Mary in Paris, France, considered "worthy of belief" 
 
by the Catholic Church
 
1831-1846 Pope Gregory XVI
 
1832 Church of Christ (Disciples) organized, made up of Presbyterians in distress 
 
over Protestant factionalism and decline of fervor
 
1833-34:C.M.S missionaries, Rev. Joseph Pete (1833),Rev.W.J.Woodcock (1834) arrive in Kerala
 
1833 Charter Renewal Act allows for full entry of missionaries into India.
 
1833 American Presbyterians begin work in Punjab and build a strong educational system.
 
1835:On 15 November Anglican Bishop Daniel Wilson of Calcutta comes to Kerala
 
1836:On 16 January the 'Mavelikara Padiyola was convened in st. Mary's Church with Mar Dionysios in the chair
 
1836 March 8:C.M.S. Missionaries and their supporters meet at mallapally and inaugurate the Anglican Church.(The second rift in the Malankara Church. The presence of a third denomination the Anglican Church)
 
1837-1845:Abraham Malpan of Palakunnathu (Maramon) starts Reform Movement
 
1837:On 11 January at Madras the C.M.S correspondence committee decides to end all relationship with Malankara Church
 
1837-1901 Victoria queen of England
 
1838-40:The college wing is shifted from the Old Seminary to a place called Fenn's Hill
 
1838:Apr 24 Dioceses of Cochin and Crnaganore are annexed to the Vicariate of Verapoly.
 
1838:The Queen of Protugal suppressed all religious Orders in Portugal and in her mission lands.
 
1838 Jesuit order, restored by Gregory XVI, returns to its Madurai Mission after an absence of 64 years.
 
 
1840:Apr 10 St.Thomas Christians came under the archdiocese of Verapoly.
 
1840:4 April Cochin Award.The Royal Court instituted by the Resident passed the Arbitrators Verdict regarding the division of the common institutions and properties of the Malankara Church and C.M.S faction.
 
1841 Welsh Presbyterian missionaries in the Khasi Hills build educational infrastructures; local Christians later lead conversion movements until over 95% percent of all Khasis become Christians.
 
1844 First Synod of Pondicherry launches Catholic reforms.
 
 
1843-1877:Palakunnathu Mathews Mar Athanasios
 
1842:On 14 February, Patriarch Mar Elias consecrates Mathews as Metropolitan Mar Athanasios
 
1843 On 17 May Palakunnath Mar Athanasios returns to Kerala after his Mardin trip
 
1843:Meeting at Kandanad
 
1846:September Yuyakim Mar Coorilos arrives in Malankara from Syria. Cheppad Dionysios relin quishes the post of Malankara Metropolitan
 
1846-1878 Pope Pius IX
 
1846 Reported apparition of Mary in La Salette, France, considered "worthy of 
 
belief" by the Catholic Church
 
1848 Nehemiah (Nilakantha) Goreh is ordained as an Anglican priest.
 
1848 Jan-Quilon Committee-the committee that was instituted by the Travancore Government to investigate the claims of Mar Athanasios and Mar Coorilos, recognizes Mar Athanasios as Malankara Metropolitan
 
1849:Syrian Patriarch Mar Athanasios sends Metropolitan Stephen to Malankara Church. Due to the unwarranted interference in Church matters, the British Resident sends back the Metropolitan
 
1852-1922 Charles Taze Russell, founded the Jehova's Witnesses movement in the 1870s
 
1855 Abolition of slavery in Travancore (Kerala) opens the way for mass conversions among untouchables, lower castes, and former slave castes.
 
The Age of Empire
 
1857 The Great Mutiny begins, followed the next year by the replacement of the East India Company by the British crown.
 
1858 Reported apparition of Mary in Lourdes, France, considered "worthy of 
 
belief" by the Catholic Church
 
1859-1959 90 Catholic NT editions, 56 Catholic editions of the whole Bible
 
1861:May 20 Bishop Rocos sent by the Patriarch of Chaldea reaches Kerala.
 
1866 Maulvi Imad id-din, ordained scholar-missionary, wins renown for apologetic writings reconciling Christian faith and Muslim culture.
 
 
1867:May 7 Property donated by Syrians to the King of Portugal to start a Seminary at Aluva. The Diocese of Cochin administered it.
 
1867:The Portuguese Missionaries start a seminary at Mangalapuzha for Syrian students
 
1864-1909:Pulicottil Joseph Mar Dionysios V
 
1870:Election of co-trustees of Church properties
 
1868 Earthquakes in Peru and Ecuador kills 40,000
 
1869-1870 First Vatican Council, 20th ecumenical, affirms doctrine of papal infallibility 
 
(ie. when a pope speaks ex cathedra on faith or morals he does so with the 
 
supreme apostolic authority, which no Catholic may question or reject)
 
1871 Reported apparition of Mary in Pontmain, France, considered "worthy of 
 
belief" by the Catholic Church
 
1872:The establishment of Parumala Seminary
 
1874:Bishop Mar Elias Melus sent by the Patriarch of Chaldea reaches Kerala - Melus Schism.
 
1875 Earthquake in Colombia, Venezuela
 
1876 Jun 29-July 1:Mulanthuruthy Synod
 
1876 Naga Christians establish a "village of refuge" where American missionaries translate Scripture, set up schools, and lay the foundation for movements by which over 95% of Nagas eventually become Christians.
 
1876:The "Marthoma Church" comes into being -- Palakkunnathu Mathews Mar Athanasious.
 
1876:Sep 19,20 Ollur Conference. The Apostolic Visitor Leo Meurin attends the conference.
 
1876 Dec 10:Consecration of Metropolitans by Patriarch Peeter III
(i)Kadavil Paulose Mar Athanasios(kottayan)
(ii)Konat Geevarghese Mar Julios(Thumpamon)
(iii)Ambat Geevarghese Mar Coorilos(Ankamaly)
(iv)Chathuruthy Geevarghese Mar Gregorios(Niranam)
 
1877:Parumala Mar Gregorios Metropolitan starts training students for priesthood
 
1877:(v)Murimattim Paulose Mar Ivanios(kandanad)
 
(vi)Karot Simon Mar Dionysios(Cochin)
 
1875-77:Patriarch Mar Peter III arrives in Malankara
 
1876 march: On 11 March the Kerala Government withdraws the recognition given to Mar Athanasios in 1852.The court is directed to settle the controversy regarding the leadership of the Malankara Church.
 
1876:June 27-29 Patriarch convenes the meeting of the delegates of the Malankara Church (Synod) at the Mar Thoman Church in Mulanthuruthy. The Malankara Syrian Christian Association is formed. From then onwards, the foundation was laid for the Malankara church to become officially a part of the Antiochan Church.
 
1877:Parumala Seminary started
 
1877:June, Patriarch leaves Malankara and goes back to Syria
 
1878:February-the Church Managing committee decides to file legal suit against Thomas Mar Athaanasios
 
1878:Parumala Synod
 
1878-1903 Pope Leo XIII
 
1878 14-point creed of the Niagara Bible Conference, used by Fundamentalists
 
1879-89:Seminary Case(Mar Dinysios filed a case agenst Thoma Mar Athanasios
 
1879 Reported apparition of Mary in Knock, Ireland, considered "worthy of belief" 
 
by the Catholic Church
 
1881-1894 Revised Version, called for by Church of England, used Greek based on 
 
Septuagint (B) and (S), Massoretic text used in OT, follows Greek order of
 
words, greater accuracy than AV, includes Apocrypha, scholarship never 
 
disputed
 
1884:District Court Verdict in favor of Mar Dionysios
 
1886:The High Court Verdict rejecting appeal against the District Court Verdict.
 
1886:Malankara Association at Old Seminary, Acquisition of MD Seminary land and formation of Brahmawar Diocese
 
1886 The Archdiocese of Cranganore is suppressed.
 
1886:Sept 1 Erection of the Catholic Hierarchy in India by Pope Leo XIII.
 
1886 Pandita Ramabai makes a triumphant tour of the United States.
 
1886 Catholic hierarchy of India established.
 
1887:Establishment of the Syro-Malabar Hierarchy by the Brief "Quod Jam Prideus" of Pope Leo XIII. Vicariates of Trichur and Kottayam.
 
1887:May 19 The St. Thomas Christians are totally segregated from the jurisdiction of the Archbishop of Verapoly and from the Padroado.
 
1887:May 20 The Vicariates of Kottayam and Trichur reorganized and the Vicariate of Changanacherry, Ernakulam and Trichur were formed.
 
1888:In November, the Woodlands Estate where the M.D. Seminary, M.D. High School, Mar Elia Cathedral are situated was bought from Hew Crawford.
 
1888:September 5 The Reformist Group registered a new association called Malabar Mar Thoma Syrian Christian Evangelistic Association and formed the Mar Thoma Syrian Christian Church. And thus there happened the 3rd schism in the Malankara Church, Mar Thoma Church grew as the 4th community of the Church.
 
1888:Jesuit father Alvarez Xavier (Mangalore) leaves roman Catholic Church and joins the Orthodox Sabha.On 29 July, Fr. Alvarez is elevated as Metropolitan Mar Julius at the Old Seminary,Kottayam by Mar Athanasios and Mar Gregorios
 
1888 Mar Thoma Evangelistic Association founded, with missionaries reaching out to low-caste peoples, forming ashram-like settlements.
 
1888-89 Salvadorians, led by German missionaries, arrive in Khasi Hills and gain first converts.
 
1889:On 12 July the Royal Court passed its majority verdict justifying the position of Mar Dionysios.Mar Dionysios regained the seminary and other properties from the hands of Mar Athanasios
 
1892,95&1901:Malankara Association meetings
 
1895:Parumala Geevarghese Mar Gregorios sets forth on his Jerusalem trip 
1891 Brahmabandhav Upadhyay is baptized as an Anglican; later joins the Catholic church.
 
 
1894 H. A. Krishna Pillai, renowned Christian poet, publishes a classical Tamil version of Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress.
 
1894 National Papal Seminary established at Kandy (moves to Pune in 1950s) to promote indigenization of the Indian Catholic hierarchy.
 
1895 Narayan Vaman Tilak (1862-1919), celebrated Brahman poet, makes a quest of reconciling Hindu heritage with devotion to Christ.
 
1895 On 27 January, in Parumala the consecration of the Church constructed in the name of St. Peter and St. Paul takes place
 
1898-1904 Twentieth Century NT, changed order of books to chronological
 
1901-1910 Edward VII king of England
 
1901 American Standard Version, recession of the RV, included words/phrases 
 
preferred by Americans, follows Greek order of words
 
1901 Pentecostal Church formed in Topeka, Kansas in reaction to loss of 
 
evangelical fervor among Methodists and other denominations
 
1902 Nov 2:Death of PARUMALA THIRUMENI
 
1902 Richard Weymouth NT, a careful literary translation
 
1903-1914 Pope Pius X, most recent Pope to be canonized
 
1904 Sundar Singh has a vision of Christ and becomes a wandering Christian sadhu.
 
1905 "Holy Spirit Revival" and speaking in tongues among devout school girls at Pandita Ramabai's Mukti Mission attracts world-wide attention.
 
1905-06 Revival in the Khasi Hills, with 8,000 converts, spreads to surrounding areas.
 
1908:January 1-3 The first Annual Conference of the Student's Movements takes place at Thirumoolapuram Balikamadom Girl's High School (Thiruvalla)
 
1908-34:Vattasseril Geevarghese Mar Dionysios VI
 
1909:On 10 August, Vattasseril Geevarghese Mar Dionysios is recognized as Malankara Metropolitan, "Sunthroniso"
 
1910-1936 George V king of England
 
1910 5-point statement of the Presbyterian General Assembly, also used by
 
Fundamentalists
 
1910 First World Missionary Conference meets in Edinburgh.
 
1910-1915 The Fundamentals, a 12-volume collection of essays by 64 British and 
 
American scholars and preachers, a foundation of Fundamentalism
 
1911:The Elder Patriarch Abdul Meshiah's telegraphic message on 17 August. Abdulla's stay order becomes invalid
 
1911:On 30 August Patriarch Abdulla's supporters meet at Aluva
 
1911:Aug 29 Pius X restored the Vicariate of Kottayam for the Suddhists of the Syro-Malabar Rite, descendants of the immigrants of A.D. 345.
 
1912:On 13 March Patriarch Abdul Meshiah arrived in Kerala
 
1912:Parumala Managing Committee Meeting on 3 March recommends Murimattathil Paulose Mar Ivanios for the post of Catholicose Patriarch recognises
 
1912:On 17 September, the Patriarch with the co-operation of Mar Dionysios and Mar Gregorios consecrated Murimattathil Mar Ivanios as Catholicos at Niranam. The Catholicate was thus established in Malankara.
 
1912:Mar Abdul Messiah and Mar Dionysius VI and his Episcopal colleagues institute "The Catholicate in Malankara"
 
1912 V. S. Azariah becomes first Indian Anglican bishop; his efforts in Dornakal inspire the conversion of over 200,000 Malas and Madigas and provoke conflict with Gandhi.
 
1912-14:I Catholicos Moran Mar Beselios Paulose
 
1913:The right to the interest accrued out of the 'Vattipanam' claimed by the Patriarch and Metropolitan factions to be decided in the court
 
1913-1924 James Moffat Bible, 1st one man translation in almost 400 years
 
1914-1922 Pope Benedict XV
 
1917 Reported apparition of Mary in Fatima, Portugal, "miracle of the sun" 
 
witnessed by between 70,000 and 100,000 people, considered "worthy of 
 
belief" by the Catholic Church
 
1917:May 1 The Oriental Congregation is formed by Pope Benedict XV.
 
1918-19:Fr. Alexious and Fr. P.T. Geevarghese together start at Perunad Bethany the order of Imitation of Christ Congregation's Ashram.
 
1919 World's Christian Fundamentals Association founded
 
1922-1939 Pope Pius XI
 
1923:On 23 June, Vattasseril Mar Dionysios set forth on a Mardintrip- church Peace Talks with the patriarch Stay order made invalid the return trip in the company of Syrian Metropolitan Julius
 
1923:Mar Julius comes to Malankara as Patriarch's delegate
 
1923:Dec 21 Establishment of the Syro-Malabar Hierarchy with Ernakulam as the Metropolitan See, and Trichur, Changanacherry and Kottayam as Sufragan Sees.
 
1923 Bishop Tibertius Roche becomes first Indian head of a Latin Rite diocese (in Tamil Nadu).
 
1924:The establishment of the Sleebadasa congregation and Eastern Missionary Group
 
1925:On 30 April, Baselios Geevarghese I anointed as Catholicos
 
1925 Scopes Trial, caused division among Fundamentalists
 
1925-28:II Catholicos Moran Mar Beselios Geevarghese I
 
1927:Konatt Mathan Malpan's efforts at reconciliation
 
1927 Amy Carmichael founds Dohnavur Fellowship for rescuing child temple prostitutes; becomes friend of Gandhi.
 
1928:On 16 August, the Malankara Association Managing Committee is entrusted with the task of forming an administrative wing for the Church
 
1929-64:III Catholicos Moran Mar Beselios Geevarghese II
 
1929:Baselios Geevarghese II is anointed on 15 February as Catholicos
 
1930:Fr. C. M. Thomas founds "the Society of the order of the Sacred Transfiguration" in Pathanapuram.
 
1930:September On 4 September Malankara Syrian Christian Association meets at M.D Seminary, Kottayam. The administrative wing of the Church is formed.
 
1930:On 20 September, Bethany's Geevarghese Mar Ivanios Bishop Mar Theophilus, Fr. John O.I.C., Bro. Aledxander and Mr. Chacko Kilileth with Catholic Church
 
1931-32:Patriarch Mar Elias III in Malankara.
 
1931:March Mar Elias- Mar Dionysios Peace Talks
 
1931:Lay Trustee E. J. Joseph receives Rs. 16000/-, which is the interest of the 'Vattipanam' for 19 years starting from 1912 to 1931
 
1932:On 13 February Mar Elias III Bava passes away in Manjanikara and laid to rest there.
 
1932:June 11 The establishment of the Syro-Malankara Hierarchy by Pope Pius XI. Mar Ivanios becomes Archbishop of Trivandrum, and Mar Theophilus Bishop of Tiruvalla
 
1932 Reported apparition of Mary in Beauraing, Belgium, considered "worthy of 
 
belief" by the Catholic Church
 
1933 Reported apparition of Mary in Banneux, Belgium, considered "worthy of 
 
belief" by the Catholic Church
 
1933:June 1 Puthenpally Seminary is shifted to Aluva.
 
1933:The establishment of the Eastern Orthodox Syrian Sunday_School Association, Syrian Yuvajana Thoughts and Syrian students conference Silver Jubilee
 
1934:On 2 June baselios Geevarghese II Catholicos of the East travels to Homez, peace talks.
 
1934:The Malankara Syrian Christian Association Meet takes place on 26 December at M.D. Seminary. The administrative wing of the Church is recognized. The Catholicos is elected as the Metropolitan of Malankara
 
1935:Bishop Herbert Pakinholmwalsh conducts 'Peace talks' with the Patriarch in Homez
 
1936:January the Christushishya Ashram in Thadagam, Coimbatore is established under the leadership of Bishop Herbert Pakinholm walsh.
 
1936 Edward VIII king of England, acceded and abdicated
 
1936-1952 George VI king of England
 
1936 Westminster NT, unofficial Catholic version (not commissioned by the
 
Hierarchy)
 
1937:His Holiness Geevarghese II Catholicose of the East and his and 19 August team participate in the 'Faith and order conference' held between 3rd August at Edinburgh
 
1939-1958 Pope Pius XII
 
1945-1955 Knox Version, from Vulgate, asked for by English Hierarchy
 
1946-1952 Revised Standard Version, revision of AV "based on consonantal Hebrew 
 
text" for OT and best available texts for NT, done in response to changes in
 
English usage
 
1947:On 2 November Baselios Yeldo whose mortal remains are interred in Kothamangalam and Parumala Mar Gregorios are declared Saints.
 
1947 Independence of India, accompanied by the Partition of the Indian Empire into India and Pakistan, followed the next year by the forming of independent Burma and Ceylon.
 
1947 Church of South India is formed, combining formerly Anglican, Congregationalist, Reformed, and Methodist denominations; soon followed by Church of North India (CNI).
 
1948 Mohandas K. Gandhi is assassinated.
 
1948:World Council of Churches Meet held in Amsterdam
 
1949 Basic English Bible, only 1000 words, simple and direct style
 
1949 Discovery of Qumran (Essenes?) scrolls, aka Dead Sea scrolls (see 68)
 
1950 July 18 The Portuguese Padroado over the Diocese of Cochin (from 1557 Feb. 4 till 1950 July 18) suppressed and the Diocese of Cochin handed over to native clergy.
 
1950 July 25 Erection of the diocese of Palai by Pope Pius XII.
 
1951:On 31 December the headquarters of the Catholicate takes from 'Devalokam'
 
1951 Mother Teresa (Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu) forms the Catholic Missionaries of Charity in Calcutta.
 
1952-Present Elizabeth II queen of England
 
1952:August catholicate College in Pathanamthitta is founded
 
1952:December World Youth Meet held in Kottayam
 
1952:Dec 28-31 Jubilee Celebration of St. Thomas and St. Francis Xavier at Ernakulam.
 
1953:On 14 May Malankara Church accepted the Gregorios calendar
 
1953:Nov 11 Cardinal Eugene Tisserant, secretary of the Sacred Oriental Congregation, visits the Syrian Catholics of Malabar.
 
1953:Dec 31 Erection of the diocese of Tellichery by Pope Pius XII.
 
1954:'St. Paul's Gospel team' was started in Mavelikara
 
1954:World Council of Churches conference in Evanston.
 
1956:October Ethiopian King Hailey Selasius' visit to Kerala
 
1956 Jan 10 Pope John XXIII raised the diocese of Changanacherry into an Archdiocese with Kottayam and Palai as Suffragan Sees.
 
1956 July 29 Erection of the diocese of Kothamangalam under the Archdiocese of Ernakulam.
 
1956 Nov.1 The present `Kerala State' is established.
 
1957 United Church of Christ founded by ecumenical union of Congregationalists and 
 
Evangelical & Reformed, representing Calvinists and Lutherans
 
1958-1963 Pope John XXIII
 
1958 J. B. Phillip's NT, uses only commonly spoken language
 
1958:May The Diamond Jubilee of the Student's movement
 
1958:September 12 Supreme Court passes Verdict in favour of the Orthodox Church
 
1958:On 9 December, the Patriarch sends a letter recognizing the Catholicos
 
1958:On 16 December, the Catholicos sends a letter recognizing the Patriarch. Mutual Reception at the Old Seminary
 
1958:The Malankara Syrian Christian Association meets at St. Mary's Church, Puthencavu. It is the first Association of the joint Churches
 
1959:On 2 February, the Church Synod Meets- division into Dioceses
 
1959: M.G.O.C.S.M. was founded
 
1959:The interest of the 'Vattipanam' Rs. 21, 840 for the year 1933 to 1959 is received on 1 August
 
1959:On 2 November St. Paul's Ashram is established in Puthupady.
 
1959 Statement of Faith (United Church of Christ)
 
1960:On 17 June the Catholicos sends a suspension order to Paulose Mar Philexinos
 
1960:On 23 September, the parishes of the divided Kerala were formed
 
1960s Freedom of Religion Acts bolster Hindu efforts to stop Christian conversion
 
1961 Third World Council of Churches, held in New Delhi, leads to the formation of the World Council of Churches as a permanent body with headquarters in Geneva.
 
1961:World Council of Churches Conference takes place on 18 November at New Delhi. The delegates of the Orthodox Church who attended the Conference at New Delhi from 6 December to 21 December meet the catholicos
 
1961 New English Bible, renders original Basic English Bible for private use
 
1962 Mar.31 Chanda Mission, outside Kerala, for the Syro-Malabar Church.
 
1962 July.3 Revised Syro-Malabar Liturgy in force. Holy Mass in Malayalam.
 
1962:On 7 November the Cyprus President Arch Bishop Makarios meets Catholicos of the East
 
1962:On 21 December the Armenian Orthodox Catholicos Vascan meets Catholicos of the East.
 
1962:The Malankara Syrian Christian Association Meeting held on 17 May at St. Mary's Chuch, Niranam Oughen Mar Timotheos is elected as Catholicos- Designate
 
1962-1965 Second Vatican Council, 21st ecumenical, announced by Pope John XXIII in 
 
1959, produced 16 documents which became official after approval by the 
 
Pope, purpose to renew "ourselves and the flocks committed to us" (Pope 
 
John XXIII)
 
1963-1978 Pope Paul VI
 
1964-75:IV Catholicos Moran Mar Beselios Ougen
 
1964:On 22 May, Moran Mar Baselios Oughen I anointed and elevated as Catholicos of the East.
 
1965:Oriental Orthodox Churches Congress held from 15 January to 24 January at Adis Abbaba
 
1965:On 2 February the Catholicos goes to Damascus-Patriarch Yakoob III and Catholicos meet- Meets Metropolitan Sevarios Zakayu at Mussalil- Brings the relics of St. Thomas, the Apostle and place at Devalokam for public homage. A portion of the Sunoro from the St. Mary's Sunaro Church at Homez is received. This is preserved in Cheriyapalli, Kottayam.
 
1965:On 1 February, the Orthodox Seminary for priests is affiliated to the Serampur University and is raised as First Grade Theological College
 
1965:The 150th year of the Theological Seminary is celebrated from 26 December to 30 December
 
1966 RSV Catholic Edition, a joint effort between Catholics and the Church of 
 
England, a big step towards a common Catholic/Protestant Bible
 
1966 Jerusalem Bible, translation from original languages based on Bible de
 
Jerusalem, Catholic version
 
1967:February- Visit to the Church of York Arch Bishop Dr. Donald Cogan
 
1968:May - M. G. O.C. S.M celebrates Diomond Jubilee
 
1968:World Council of Churches conference held from 4 July to 20 July at Upsala, Sweeden
 
1969:The Visit of a delegation from the Russian Orthodox Church
 
1969 Mar.28 Archbishop Mar Joseph Parecattil of Ernakulam Cardinal.
 
1969 May All-India Seminar Church In India Today . T.En. Conceived
 
1970-75:Patriarch Mar Yakoob III's efforts at separation
 
1970:On 27 June through the Decree No. 203 St. Thomas the Apostle is denied title
 
1970 Confraternity Version, new Catholic translation from the originals which 
 
began before 1939 as a translation from the Vulgate, but ending up as a new 
 
translation from the Hebrew (OT) and Greek (NT).
 
1971 New American Standard Bible, updated the ASV using recent Hebrew and 
 
Greek textual discoveries
 
1972:On 28 January, an unauthorized appointed of a representative of the Patriarch is made through a decree. (According to the decree No. 36/72 the Patriarch appoints Abhudi Mar Timotheos as the representative of the Patriarch in Malankara. As he was not acceptable in Malankara, the central Government intervened and sent him back from India)
 
1972:On 3 July to commemorate the 19th Sathapdi death annieversary of St. Thomas the Apostle, the Indian Government released a postel stamp depicting the picture of the Persian Cross
 
1972:On 10 October, the 19th Sathapdi meeting of St. Thomas the Apostle is held in St. Mary's Church, Niranam. The 'Mahasammelanam' was held on 31 December at Kottayam
 
1972 :Bhilai St. Thomas Mission Center is established
 
1973 April 7 T.En. Published by Carrdinal Parecattil at the Cardinal House Ernakulam. H.H. Moran Mar Augen I Catholicos presided. Also on the dais were Mar Phelexinos, Mar Mankuzhikkary, Mar Pawathil, ...
 
1973 July 3 The Governor of Kerala and the Cardinal release the St. Thomas Stamp and the T.En.II for sale
 
1974:On 3 August, Malankara Church Synod withdraws the recognition accorded to Patriarch Yakoob
 
1975:The supporters of the Patriarch observed the Patriarch's Day on 23 February at Ernakulam
 
1975:The Patriarch convenes the "Universal Syrian Orthodox Sabha Synod" from 16 June to 20 June at Damascus. The Catholicos and other Metropolitans are to the Syrian Orthodox Church opponents of the Scriptures and hence are churches
 
1975:On 7 September, the Patriarch Yakoob III consecrated Paulose Mar Philexinos at Damascus as the Eastern ' Maphriyana'. The supporters of the Patriarch formed the Malankara Jacobite Syrian Church under his leadership.
 
1975:On 24 September His Holiness Baselios oughen abdicated the position of Catholicos and Malankara Metropolitan in favour his successor.
 
1975:He retired on 11 October from the post of the Caholicos
 
1975:The Holy Synod on 27 October at the Old Seminary anointed Mathews Mar Athanasios as the Catholicos
 
1975:On 8 December, His Holiness Baselios Oughen Catholicos of the East passes away and is laid to rest in Devalokam Chapel
 
1975-91:V Catholicos Moran Mar Beselios Marthoma Mathews I
 
1976:The Northern dioceses accord a reception on 15 February at Ernakulam to the Catholicos
 
1976:On 27 March, three dioceses outside Kerala were formed, namely, Mumbai, Madras and Delhi.
 
1976:His Holiness the Catholicos of the East, Mathews Mar Coorlilos, Dr. Paulose Mar Gregorios and Joseph Mar Pakkomios visited the Russian Orthodox Church and the Armenian Orthodox Church on 21 September
 
1976:A delegation from the Orthodox Church visited the Rumanian and Bulgarian Orthodox Churches
 
1976- 90:The 1st phase of the Malankara Sabha Case
 
1976:On 9th July, the Government appointed a Special Court to look into suits of the church
 
1977:In January, the Russian Orthodox Patriarch Pimente visits Malankara Church
 
1977 Indian Supreme Court defines evangelist's work as a threat to the "freedom of conscience" guaranteed to all citizens of India.
 
 
1978: Mathews Mar Coorilos submits a memorandum to the Chief Minister on 1 February seeking the protection of the Metropolitans, priests and institutions of the Church
 
1978 Pope John Paul I
 
1978 New International Version, used eclectic Greek text, Massoretic Hebrew 
 
text, and current English style
 
1978-? Pope John Paul II, reaffirmed conservative moral traditions (The Splendor of 
 
Truth) and the forbidding of women in the priesthood
 
1979-1982? New King James Bible, complete revision of 1611 AV, updates archaisms 
 
while retaining style
 
1979:On 7 July, Malankara Orthodox sabha forms the Child Welfare Board
 
1979:On 11 July, His Holiness the Catholicos of the east visits the United States of America, Canada and England
 
1979:The Mission Training Center at Mavelikara starts a three year Mission Training Course on 15 September
 
1979:On 1 June the Bombay, Delhi and Madras dioceses are divided into five as 1. America 2. Bombay 3. Calcutta 4. Delhi5. Madras. Kollam diocese was divided to form the Thiruvananthapuram diocese.
 
1979:The handing over of the keys to the 66 houses constructed by the Malankara Orthodox Church as part of the relief work in the devastated areas of Andra on 15 October
 
1980:A committeee formed in Old Seminary, Kottayam for graduate and postgraduate studies in Theology (F.F R.R.C)
 
1980:Patriarch Mar Ignatios Yakoob III passes away on 26 June
 
1980:Patriarch Mar Ignatios Saka I is anointed on 14 September
 
1981-? Reported apparitions of Mary in Medjugorje, Yugoslavia, not yet 
 
approved/disapproved by the Catholic Church
 
1982:Kottayam Diocese is divided into three on 8 January 1. Kottayam Central 2. Kottayam 3. Idukki
 
1982:The dasthation celebration of the Catholicate held from 5 to 15 September in Bombay. Guest- Patriarch Elia II (Georgia Orhodox Church) in Ernakulam. Guest- Metropolitan Emilianos (Constantinople) Kottayam, Guest. Patriarch Elia II President of India His Excellancy Zail Singh.
 
1983:On 24 July the W.C.C Assemblyis held in Vancouver
 
1983:Dr. Paulose Mar Gregorios becomes President of All World Chuch of Churches on 9 August
 
1983:From 26 May to 4 June, His Holiness the Catholicos of the East visits the parishes in the Middle East. Consecrates the St. George Orthodox Church at Abudhabi. The Catholicos also visits Pope John Paul II at Vatican.
 
1983:A stone Cross is discovered near Nilackal on 23 March
 
1983:The M.G. O.C. S.M Platinum Jubilee is celebrated from 25 December to 31 December at Old Seminary, Kottayam
 
1984:St. Thomas Ecumenical Center is established on 8 April at Nilackal
 
1984:His Holiness the Catholicos of the East inaugurates on 28 July Divyabodhanam, which is spiritual Studies Project, instituted in the Orthodox Seminary for lay people.
 
1984 :On 25 August Vice President R. Venkataraman inaugurates the Delhi Orthodox Centre
 
1985:On 10 March, the Thumpamon, Niranam and Kollam dioceses are divided to form the Chengannur diocese.
 
1985:On 14 April Kunnamkulam dioceses is formed
 
1985:The Sultan Battery diocese was formed on 23 October
 
1985:The 8th Assembly of Christian Conference of Asia was held in June at Seoul, South Korea
 
1985:On 8 December, Geevarghese Mar Osthathios laid the foundation stone for the Mar Gregorios Balagram at Yechram.
 
1986:Feb. 1-10 Visit of Pope John Paul II to India.
 
1986:Feb. 8 Fr. Chavara Kuriakose Elias and Sr. Alphonsa are proclaimed blessed by Pope John Paul II.
 
1986:The Catholicos of the East meets Pope John Paul II on 8 February at Mar Elia Cathedral,Kottayam
 
1989:The Rumanian Patriarch Theoctitus inaugurated the Jubilee celebrations of the death anniversary of Catholicos Geevarghese II on 8 January at M.D. Seminary, Kottayam
 
1989:The Catholicos- Designate inaugurates on 4 and 5 February the Bombay Orthodox Church Center
 
1889:On 20 August the Catholicos of the East inaugurates the St. Thomas Karunya Guidance Center at Thiruvananthapuram
 
1990:The Joint declaration of the general understanding arrived at by the Commission for Orthodox- Catholic Dialogue announced on 3 June in Vatican and in Kottayam
 
1990:On 9 February, the Parumala auditorium is inaugurated
 
1990:The Kerala High Court Passes the Verdict on the Church Case.
 
1991:On April, due to ill health the Catholicos relinquishes his post. Mathews Mar Coorilos assumes responsibilities as Malankara Metropolitan
 
1991:On 29 April, the formal anointing of the Catholicos and Malankara Metropolitan- anointed Mathews Mar Corilos as Baselios Mar Thoma Mathews II at Parumala Seminary
 
1991-:VI Catholicos Moran Mar Beselios Marthoma Mathews II 
 
1992 Dec.16 Pope John Paul II raises the Syro-Malabar Church to a Major Archiepiscopal Sui Juris Church with the title of Ernakulam - Angamaly Quae Majori. His Em. Cardinal Paidyara first Major Archbp.; Archbp. Abraham Kattumana Pontifical Delegate.
 
1993 May. 20-25 The first synod of the Syro-Malabar Church.
 
1993:September World Parliament of Religions Conference at Chicago
 
1994 Declaration of cooperation between Evangelicals and Catholics
 
1995:Orthodox Theological Seminary established in Bhilai 
 
1995:On 9 April, His Holiness Baselios Mar Thoma Mathews II the Catholicos of the East participates in the consecration of Armenian Supreme Catholicos At Echmiodos
 
1995 May Trichur elevated to an Archbishopric. 
 
1995:The Supreme Court Passes the verdict on the Church case on 20 June 
 
1996:On 3 March St. Paul's Balagram is founded in Ittarsi in Madhya Pradesh 
 
1996:June the Baselios Mathes I Memorial Hospital and St. Paul's Tribal Balagram ware inaugurated in Gobarnampur village of Kalahandi District in Orissa 
 
1996 Mar Geevarghese (Varkey) Vithayathil (Major Archiepiscopal) Apostolic Administrator. 
 
1997 :From 5 to 10 June, talks on Church Unity among Oriental Orthodox Church and Reform Churches held at Sophia Centre Kottayam. 

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